Showing Collections: 1 - 50 of 52
Scope and Contents Typed manuscript of compilation of letters written by Andrew and Martha Ruch to family and other correspondents during their service in Kenya, chiefly 1922-1925, as pioneer missionaries among the Kikuyu people at the Gathugu mission station, located in the Kikuyu reserve. Topics covered in the correspondence include: experiences in Africa and the African culture, their work in education, evangelism, and medicine, the Kikuyu people and other mission-related topics. Prominent people mentioned...
Identifier: CN 089
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, films, videos relating to Paul P. Stough’s missionary service in the Belgian Congo with Africa Inland Mission. Materials contain information on Stough's father, Henry Stough, Wheaton College, Paul Stough's work as a missionary for Africa Inland Mission in the Belgian Congo (Zaire) and Kenya from the 1920s to the 1970s, and generally on the spread of Christianity in Africa.
Identifier: CN 093
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Earl Austin Winsor (1897-1983) in which he discusses his education at Wheaton College as a student (1919-1920) and teacher (1920-25, history, and 1939-1949, math and physics) and his missionary experiences in Africa under Africa Inland Mission, serving in what is now Zaire. Wheaton personalities, mission experiences, especially those relating to his education work, and analysis of his exposure to African government, churches, tribal customs, and health practices....
Identifier: CN 115
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Raymond Leroy Elliott (1924-2008), Wycliffe Bible translator working among the Ixil Indian tribe in Guatemala. Interview topics include educational work and life in Wheaton, translation activities, missionary training, mission responsibilities, and political, social, and cultural events in Central America. The time period covered by the interviews is roughly 1824-1980.Raymond Elliott was interviewed by Chris Matthews, a Wheaton College graduate student,...
Scope and Contents Oral History interviews conducted with Helen Ruth Belcher Elliot (1927-2012), missionary with Wycliffe Bible Translators to the Ixil Indian tribe in Guatemala. Topics include Wheaton College during the 1950s, field experiences, Guatemalan culture and religion, and family activities. Topics covered in the interview include: Elliott's childhood, marriage and early family life, education at Wheaton College (including courses, academic and social life), decision to become a missionary with...
Scope and Contents Newspaper clippings, photograph, scrapbook sermon transcripts and notebooks, microfilm, and oral history interviews relating to the career of evangelist Mordecai Fowler Ham.Series: PapersArrangement: ChronologicalDate Range: 1927-1944, undatedVolume: 0.44 Cubic Feet, 1 BoxType of documents: Newspaper clippings, microfilm, periodicals, photographs, sermon transcripts and notebooksNotes: The collection...
Identifier: CN 169
Scope and Contents Oral History Interview with Harold Paul Adolph, in which he discusses his boyhood in China as the son of missionaries with China Inland Mission, conditions in China, his education at Wheaton College, medical education at the University of Pennsylvania, decision to become a missionary, and his ministry in Ethiopia as a medical missionary in African with Sudan Interior Mission; American missions in Ethiopia; family life on the mission field, and work with the Christian Medical Society. The time...
Scope and Contents One oral history interview with Mark Richard Larson concerning his experiences as a missionary under Sudan Interior Mission in Nigeria, 1979-1981. Centers on agricultural mission work in the Kano area of northern Nigeria. Also included in the collection are prayer letters dated from October 1982 to August 1984 and an Sudan Interior Mission Prayer Guide (folder 1-2), and a scrapbook (folder 1-1). The scrapbook was used as a point of reference throughout the interview and should be used by...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, diaries, newsletters, scripts, catalogs, films, and other material related to the work of the Baptista Film Mission. This collection contains much information on the beginnings of the Protestant evangelical Christian film industry. Included are films featured are evangelical and fundamentalist figures like V. Raymond Edman, Billy Graham, Henry A. Ironside, Bob Jones Jr., Paul Rader, Oswald J. Smith, and Walter Wilson and nondenominational organizations. Subjects documented...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with John Alexander Gration (1926-2012). Topics discussed include: Gration's Christian activities in high school and the U.S. Navy, education at Moody Bible Institute, Gordon College, and Wheaton College; his spiritual growth and call to become a missionary, his marriage, and his first impressions of and missionary experiences with Africa Inland mission in the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo), Christianity and culture, animism, superstition, AIM attitudes...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and booklet of short stories and photographs created by William John Barnett, relating to his upbringing in Kenya as the son of missionaries with Africa Inland Mission (AIM) and his own later medical missionary service in Tanzania, Kenya, and the Comoro Islands from 1950-1990.Series: Audio TapesOral history interviews with William John Barnett in which he describes his childhood in Kenya with his missionary parents;...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Gladys Lyle Wright (1902-1994), in which she discusses her work as a teacher in Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo). Topics discussed include: Wright's family background, education at Wheaton College and Moody Bible Institute, her work as a missionary in the Belgian Congo for the Africa Inland Mission, memories of the Congolese people and culture, and her experiences at Wheaton when she was on the staff of the College after retriring from the mission...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Margaret Rice Elliott Crossett in which she describes her childhood with her missionary parents in China, her education at Wheaton College, and missionary career with her husband, Vincent Crossett, in China and Taiwan with China Inland Mission/Overseas Missionary Fellowship (1929-1948, 1961-1973). Topics discussed include Crossett's childhood in China; description of Chinese indigenous worship practices and syncretism in Chinese religious culture; Crossett's...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Paul Groen in which he describes his education at Wheaton College, missionary work the Christian Reformed Church in Nigeria and the Nigerian church, particularly among the Tiv people, and the country's economy, educational system and political history between 1964 and 1973. Other topics discussed include: Tiv customs and religion, the church among the Tiv and its indigenous leadership and transition of leadership from missionaries, relations with Roman Catholics...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Merle Ashel Steely, who worked as a missionary with Sudan Interior Mission between 1951 and 1977 in Liberia and Nigeria. Topic discussed include: Steely's conversion while in military service, education and employment at Wheaton College (including the 1950 revival there), his missionary work in Liberia at radio station ELWA and with Sudan Interior Mission in Nigeria, teaching in mission and government schools, evangelism and church planting, Billy Graham's 1960...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with David Livingstone Farah, in which he discusses his upbringing, education at Wheaton College, work as an administrator with Wycliffe Bible Translators in Peru and Bolivia, and relationships with other religious bodies, national groups and governments. Other topics include the 1950 revival at Wheaton College; Wycliffe jungle training in Mexico; the Catholic Church in Bolivia and the prevalence of syncretism; differences between Peru and Bolivia; description of William...
Scope and Contents Water color paintings and oral history interviews with Charles J. Guth, relating to Guth’s missionary work in Africa with the Sudan Interior Mission. Topics covered by the interviews include: Guth’s education at Wheaton College, preparation for the mission field as a worker with Sudan Interior Mission, his life, work, and contacts as a missionary among the Koma and Maban people of the Sudan; the culture of these peoples; the effect of Sudan's independence on the church in the Sudan, linguistics...
Scope and Contents Collection 312 consists of letters, oral history interviews, articles, minutes of meetings, reports and other relating to Diane Hawkins' missionary service in Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia) as well as the tapes of an oral history interview conducted several years later. Among the topics covered are: TEAM's evangelistic, and educational work in Rhodesia; the lifestyle, music, and beliefs of Shona people; the civil war between white government and the black nationalist guerrillas which raged while...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Martha H. Philips (1905-1996) in which she describes her childhood, education, missionary work in China with China Inland Mission at Chefoo School as a teacher of missionary children, her internment by the Japanese at Temple Hill and Wei Xian camps, repatriation, working with Wycliffe Bible Translators among the Zapotec Indians in southern Mexico, and traveling throughout the world representing the mission. The time period covered by the interviews is roughly...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Deborah J. Seymour in which she describes her childhood as a child of missionaries in Papua New Guinea and working as an English teacher in Honduras with World Gospel Mission and Churches of Christ in Christian Union from 1983 to 1985. Topics discussed include her parents' missionary work; her childhood as a missionary kid; New Guinea tribal culture; conversion to Christianity and spiritual life; call to the mission field; observations about Honduras, particularly...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Ian Harper Cooke and Ruth Eileen (Witmer) Cook, in which Ian describes his childhood and education in South Africa, college education at Wheaton College, training for missionary work, medical missions work in South Africa with The Evangelical Alliance Mission (TEAM), the Zulus, apartheid, and the national church; and Ruth describes her childhood, conversion, and intention to become a missionary nurse, education at West Suburban Hospital and Wheaton College, joining...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and paper records relating to Ralph Shannon’s life and ministry as a medical missionary in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo).Audio Tapes Four oral history interviews with Ralph Shannon, recorded on eight reels of audio tape. Topics covered include Shannon's childhood in Belgian Congo (Zaire) with his missionary parents, Wheaton College undergraduate and graduate education, service in Zaire as a medical missionary...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Paul Brown Long in which he discusses his childhood, attendance at Wheaton Academy and Wheaton College (including individuals Hudson, Taylor Armerding, Edward A. Coray, V. Raymond Edman, Billy Graham, Ruth Bell Graham, Clarence Jaarsma, Clarence Simpson, C. Gregg Singer), missionary work in education, evangelism, and church planting in the former Belgian Congo and in Brazil. Other topics include animism, church discipline, Christianity and culture, rearing a family...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Joshua Adjabeng in which he discusses his childhood in Ghana, family, conversion to Christianity, education at Wheaton College; the Church of the Pentecost, evangelistic work among university students, Christian literature in Ghana. Other topics discussed include the condition of the church in Ghana, African Pentecostalism, and a comparison of the Christian church and Ghana and the United States. The time period covered by the interview is 1950-1986....
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Sharon "Sheri" Rose Simon in which she describes her childhood, conversion to Christianity, decision to become a missionary, internship in Mexico, and medical work in Haiti.Other topics discussed include: joining the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, raising financial support, common health problems, folk remedies, the relationship between the Haitian would view and health care, voodoo, the 1985-86 revolution in Haiti, relations between Catholics and...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and manuscript, relating to the ministry of Janet Kuhns, missionary among the Dayak people in West Kalimantan, Indonesia under the auspices of the Christian and Missionary Alliance (CM&A).[NOTE: In the Scope and Content description, the notation "Folder 1-1" means box 1, Folder 1.]Series: Audio TapesThree oral history interviews with Janet Kuhns in which she...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Rosanna Formenak in which she discusses her family background; conversion; education at Nyack College and Columbia University in nursing; experiences as a missionary in Gabon with the Christian and Missionary Alliance; youth work, relationship between church and state in Gabon; medical work; and the strengths and weaknesses of the church in Gabon. Other topics discussed include the influence of Word of Life and Youth for Christ on Formenak’s spiritual growth,...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview and one prayer letter relating to the ministry of Charles Oliver “Dick” Springer, missionary with Overseas Missionary Fellowship in China and Japan from 1937-1996.Series: Audio TapesOral history interview with Dick Springer in which he describes his family and their missionary interest and involvement, conversion, education (at Whitman College, Princeton Theological Seminary, and Moody Bible Institute), his involvement in...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Ruth Lillian Maxwell in which she talks about her family background, including her grandfather, L.E. Maxwell, founder of Prairie Bible Institute, and her parents, missionaries with Sudan Interior Mission (SIM) in Nigeria; Nigerian village life; experiences at boarding school; conversion to Christianity; spiritual development; education in Canada at Prairie Bible Institute; joining SIM; missions work in Liberia teaching the Bible and leading study groups for women....
Scope and Contents Oral history interview and prayer letters relating to the ministry of Helen Elizabeth Berry, missionary with the Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society in Taiwan from 1966-1990.Series: Audio TapesOral history interview with Helen E. Berry in which she describes her youth, family, conversion, call to be a missionary, education at Wheaton College, missionary work with the Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society in Taiwan, church...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Paul Frederick Hurlburt (1927-1996) in which he describes the work of his grandfather (Charles E.) and father (Paul F. E.) as missionaries and mission administrators in east central Africa; languages skills among missionaries; the development of Christianity among the nade people of Zaire, including their worship practices and music; and the influence of witchcraft in the area. The time period covered by the interview is approximately 1898 to 1990.Paul...
Scope and Contents Glass negatives, negatives, and photographs relating to the ministry of Laura Neva Collins, missionary to Kenya with Africa Inland Mission from 1907-1952. Shots include missionaries, Africans, indigenous artifacts, church architecture, etc., relating to mission work in Africa.This collection originally consisted of ninety-seven black and white glass negatives of missionary activities in Africa before 1914. There are two series of glass negatives. The first series may have taken by...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Helen Elizabeth Evans in which she decsribes her family background; spiritual development; education at Wheaton College; ministry in rural Vermont with the New England Fellowship; the influence of her aunt, Elizabeth Evans; her missionary work in Vietnam and Indonesia with the Christian and Missionary Alliance; and work among Vietnamese in Charlotte, North Carolina. Evans' work in Vietnam was particularly among the Dega and other tribal groups often classified as...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Phyllis Evelyn Taylor in which she discusses her childhood and conversion to Christianity; education at Wheaton College; her experiences as a Christian and Missionary Alliance teacher and evangelist among the Bantu people in the Belgian Congo from 1952-1966; her work in Taiwan from 1968 as an independent missionary; and teaching English as a means of evangelism. Other topics discussed include attending Nyack Missionary Training Institute; memories of the 1950...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Merry Dalton Long (1925-2010) in which she describes her childhood; education at Wheaton College; marriage; missionary work in the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and Brazil; the 1960 Congo Rebellion; raising and educating children on the mission field. Other topics discussed include: Long’s medical training as a nurse during WWII; impressions of Africa; medical care available on the mission field; observations about Congolese animism; missionary...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Elizabeth Quackenbush Stough (1913-2009) in which she discusses her parents, childhood, education, conversion, attendance at Moody Bible Institute, call to be a missionary, joining Africa Inland Mission, travel to Africa, work in French Equatorial Africa, evangelistic field trips, her husband Paul Stough, her work among women in the Belgian Congo, the growth of the Africa Inland Church, the independence of the Congo, the Congolese civil war and Simba uprising, the...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with William Adam Stier (1912-2004), missionary with Africa Inland Mission in Tanzania from 1938 to 1978. Topics covered in the two sessions include his youth and conversion, marriage, Bible school education, call to missions, his work with the Sakuma and Tuzu peoples, his ministry as a teacher of African pastors; the transition from mission to indigenous church control in Tanzania, the policies and personnel of AIM, Emil Sywulka, political changes in Tanzania, polygamy...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Margaret L. Clapper (1912-2005), missionary with Africa Inland Mission in Belgian Congo/Zaire from 1939-1980. Topics covered in two sessions include her youth, conversion, Bible school education at Moody Bible Institute, missionary work in central Africa, Belgian administration of the Congo, work among pygmies, Zaire politics and government, independence of the country in 1960 and the Simba rebellion, transition from mission to national authority, singleness, role...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, diaries, articles, clippings, oral history interviews, photograph albums, photographs, prayer letters, radio broadcasts, and slides, describing Laura Isabelle “Belle” Barr's missionary work among the Lugbara people of northeast Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and the West Nile District of Uganda with Africa Inland Mission (AIM) from 1944-1981.[Note: In the Scope & Content section, the notation “folder 2-5" means “Box 2,...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, letters, newspaper clipping, a booklet and other materials, relating mainly to John E. Phillips' work as a missionary with the Sudan Interior Mission among the Kambatta people of Ethiopia (1932-1937) and among the Dinka people of Sudan (1938-1949). There is also some information on his involvement in other ministries, such as Ambassadors for Christ and the Allentown Rescue Mission.[Note: In the Scope & Content section, the notation...
Identifier: CN 509
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Evelyn Mildred Camp (1915-1999), missionary work in the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo) with Africa Inland Mission (AIM) from 1944 to 1961. Topics discussed include Camp's experience as a child of missionaries, her missionary work in schools for boys and girls at Oicha and Blukwa AIM stations, her family's economic hardships, furloughs, the social life of missionary children, education at Rethy Academy, call to missionary work, training at Columbia...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Harry Luther Cox (1906-2004) in which he describes his youth and family, conversion and spiritual growth, call to missionary work, service with Sudan Interior Mission in Nigeria, relations with and evangelism among Muslims, tribal characteristics, Kano, language study, establishing a leprosy station, medical missions, the Magazawa and Fulani peoples, raising a family on the mission field, furloughs, death of his sons, World War II, animists, children of...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview in which John Raymond Stauffacher in which he describes his childhood in Kenya, missionary parents John and Florence Stauffacher, his brother Claudon, missions in Kenya, the Masai people, Mrs. Westervelt and the Westervelt Home, studying and teaching at Rift Valley Academy, Charles Hurlburt, the Mau Mau Rebellion, Great Britain's colonial administration of Kenya, Christian life, conversion, missionary call, language learning and missionary work with Africa Inland Mission...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Jarbas Da Silva in which he discusses his childhood in San Paulo, Brazil; conversion to Christianity; Baptist Bible College; Russell Shedd; joining the Africa Inland Mission as a missionary to Mozambique; strengths and weaknesses of the church in Brazil; first impressions of Mozambique; the development of Sofala Bible Institute Beira City, Mozambique; strengths and weaknesses of the church in Mozambique; aftermath of the civil war; his perspective on the need for...
Scope and Contents One oral history interview, one videotape, one radio interview, one photograph, and prayer letters related to the ministry of Jacqueline Huggins, missionary and Bible translator with Wycliffe Bible Translators among the Kagayanen people of the Philippines.The recordings, comprising the majority of the collection, consist of an oral history with Huggins (see detailed description which follows) and of the radio program Family Portraits segment hosted by...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Curitis Cole. Topics covered include: Cole’s family background, the development of his Christian faith, his experiences as a missionary kid in Ivory Coast in the 1970s, descriptions of the Christian community in Ivory Coast and the Ivory Coast Academy; Ivorian worship services; his education at Michigan State University, his business career in Denver and his ministry as a youth pastor there, his and his wife's call to missions, his work in Ecuador as an broadcaster...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, photograph, videos related to the ministry of Reverend Felix Erondu, Nigerian evangelist and founder of Traveling Light Ministries.Series: Oral History InterviewsTwo oral history interviews with Felix Erondu, in which he decribes his family background in Aba, Nigeria; upbringing in the Anglican church; education; training as a teacher; participation in the Biafran civil war; work as a teacher and principal; committing...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Frederick George Ferris (1911-1998) a Baptist pastor, officer with World Evangelical Fellowship (WEF) and the National Association of Evangelicals, and missionary to Liberia, West Africa. Topics discussed include Ferris’s family background; conversion to Christianity; various church pastorates; church planting; foreign mission work in Liberia with the LeTourneau Foundation; medical and educational work in Liberia; description of traditional tribal religious culture;...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Mary Ann (Shook) Miller a missionary with Africa Inland Mission (AIM) to the Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and the Central African Republic. Topics discussed include her family background; conversion to Christianity; education at Wheaton College; InterVarsity Christian Fellowship Urbana Conference; call to the mission field; history of AIM; preparation for the mission field; language training; descriptions of her first mission station; traditional tribal...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Addison Carl Tanner (1932-2012) a missionary with Africa Inland Mission (AIM) in Tanzania and publisher of Christian literature. Tanner describes his mission work, the Tanzanian people, Christianity and animism, political situation in Tanzania, role of tribal chiefs, his conversion and call to mission work, changes in the Tanzanian church, and role of women in the African Inland Church. The time period covered in the interview is 1932 to 1988.Addison Carl...
- Wheaton College (Ill.) 23
- Wheaton College (Ill.). 12
- Edman, V. Raymond (Victor Raymond), 1900-1967. 9
- Africa Inland Mission. 8
- Graham, Billy, 6
- Islam 6
- Sudan Interior Mission. 6
- Wycliffe Bible Translators. 6
- Africa Inland Church. 5
- Africa Inland Mission, International. 5
- Christian and Missionary Alliance 5
- Hurlburt, Charles E. 5
- Moody Bible Institute. 5
- Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society. 4
- Davis, Ralph T. 4
- Moody Bible Institute 4
- Becker, Carl K., 3
- Blanchard, Charles A. 3
- China Inland Mission. 3
- Evangelical Alliance Mission. 3
- Evangelical Churches of West Africa. 3
- Mau Mau. 3
- Rift Valley Academy (Kijabe, Kenya) 3
- Youth for Christ International. 3
- Armerding, Hudson T. 2
- Barnett, Erik S. 2
- Bell, James W. 2
- Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. 2
- Buswell, J. Oliver. 2
- Catholic Church 2
- Christian and Missionary Alliance. 2
- Coray, Edward A. 2
- Crossett, Margaret E. 2
- Crossett, Vincent L. 2
- Dodds, Gilbert, 2
- Elliot, Jim, 2
- Gospel Recordings, Inc. 2
- HCJB (Radio station : Quito, Ecuador) 2
- High School Born-Againers. 2
- Ironside, H. A. 2
- Kent Academy (Jos, Nigeria) 2
- Long, Merry. 2
- Long, Paul B. 2
- Lumumba, Patrice, 2
- Mission Aviation Fellowship. 2
- Overseas Missionary Fellowship. 2
- Paul, Austin, 2
- Prairie Bible Institute. 2
- Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 2
- Reed, Brandt. 2
- Rethy Academy (Rethy, Zaire) 2
- Roosevelt, Theodore, 2
- SIM (Organization) 2
- Simpson, Clarence J. 2
- Smith, Oswald J. 2
- Stam, Elisabeth Alden Scott, 2
- Stam, John Cornelius, 2
- Stough, Paul Pinney. 2
- Summer Institute of Linguistics. 2
- Sunday, Billy, 2
- Tenney, Merrill C. (Merrill Chapin), 1904-1985 2
- Van Dusen, George C. 2
- Winsor, Earl. 2
- Adjabeng, Joshua. 1
- Adolph, Harold Paul. 1
- Africa Evangelical Fellowship. 1
- Africa Inland Mission 1
- Africa Inland Mission (AIM). 1
- Air Mail From God, Inc. 1
- Allentown Rescue Mission and Home Association. 1
- Ambassadors for Christ. 1
- American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. 1
- American Colonization Society. 1
- Amin, Idi, 1
- Anderson, Helen. 1
- Anderson, Ian Rankin. 1
- Baptista Film Mission. 1
- Baptista, C. O. 1
- Barnett, Albert E. 1
- Barnett, Elma. 1
- Barnett, William John. 1
- Barr, Laura Isabelle. 1
- Becker, Carl K. Jr. (Dr). 1
- Berry, Helen E. 1
- Bingham, Rowland V., 1
- Blanchard, Jonathan. 1
- Bob Jones University. 1
- Bokeleale, Jean B. 1
- Brand, Owen. 1
- Buswell, J. Oliver 1
- Buswell, James Oliver, 1
- Cairns, Earle Edwin. 1
- Camp, Earl. 1
- Camp, Ellen. 1
- Camp, Evelyn Mildred, 1
- Camp, Marian. 1
- Capa, Cornell, 1
- Chefoo School (Yen-t'ai shih, China) 1
- Chicago Gospel Tabernacle (Ill.) 1
- Chow, Moses, 1 ∧ less