Showing Collections: 101 - 150 of 158
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Javier Gonzalo Velasquez, in which he describes his family background; childhood in Peru; conversion to Christianity; the work of the Christian and Missionary Alliance church in Lima; his education at Rio Grande Bible Institute and Columbia Bible College; his work as a South America Mission (SAM) missionary in Bolivia and Peru; the BGEA's 1990 Mission World campaign in Paraguay. Other topics discussed include: the history and development of the CMA in Peru;...
Dates: Created: 1959-1992
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Jose E. Hernandez in which he discusses his conversion; mission work in Spain; ministry in the jails and prisons of Miami, Florida; jail conditions; the work of the South Florida Jail Ministries; the work of the Agape Women's Homes; church/state relations; emotional and organizational problems in Christian ministry. The time period covered by the interviews is 1952-1993.Jose Hernandez was interviewed by Paul Ericksen on January 13,1993 at the offices of...
Dates: Created: 1952-1993
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with W. Scott Nyborg in which he describes his childhood, work with High School Evangelism Fellowship; the 1957 Billy Graham New York Crusade; the Sermons from Science exhibit at the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair; Office of Worldwide Evangelism-in-Depth (OWED) for Latin America Mission; In-Depth Evangelism Associates (IDEA); Reality Seminars with Latin America Mission; Christ for the City-Miami; co-workers Ruben Lores, Rene Padilla, Orlando Costas and John Huffman;...
Dates: Created: 1923-1993
Identifier: CN 479
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with William Adam Stier (1912-2004), missionary with Africa Inland Mission in Tanzania from 1938 to 1978. Topics covered in the two sessions include his youth and conversion, marriage, Bible school education, call to missions, his work with the Sakuma and Tuzu peoples, his ministry as a teacher of African pastors; the transition from mission to indigenous church control in Tanzania, the policies and personnel of AIM, Emil Sywulka, political changes in Tanzania, polygamy...
Dates: Created: 1993
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Francis Sunderaraj in which he describes committing his life to Christ as a teenager in India; the development of his faith; the institutions and leadership of Evangelical Protestantism in India; Methodist churches in India and Malaysia; Sunderaraj's education at the Union Biblical Seminary in Yeotmal, India, Princeton Seminary, and Wheaton College; the development of the Evangelical Fellowship of India. The time period covered by the interviews is ca. 1942-1993....
Dates: Created: 1937-1993
Scope and Contents Four oral history interviews, paper records, and photographs documenting David Howard's life and work with Latin American Mission, InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, and World Evangelical Fellowship.Topics covered in the interviews include Howard's childhood, Christian faith, education at Wheaton College, work as a missionary and administrator with Latin America Mission; missions director for Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, director of the 1980 Consultation on World...
Dates: Created: 1968-1993
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Jeffrey R. Wetherill in which he discusses his childhood, parents, interest in sports, conversion, involvement with Fellowship of Christian Athletes, work as a Youth for Christ club director, youth pastor at an Evangelical Mennonite Church, joining Greater Europe Mission (GEM), youth work in Dublin, Ireland, relations between Irish Catholics and evangelical Protestants, and GEM methods of ministry in Ireland. The time period covered by the interviews is 1966 to...
Dates: Created: 1966-1993
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with William E. Pannell in which he describes his childhood in Michigan, his family, conversion as a teenager, his growing awareness of racism in America and especially its influence on American Christianity, education at Fort Wayne Bible College, involvement with the Brethren Assemblies, the part preaching has played in his life, the divide between urban and suburban culture and its impact on black and white churches and institutions, his work with Youth for Christ, the...
Dates: Created: 1929-2007
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Ian M. Hay in which he describes his childhood; missionary parents and their work in Nigeria; Hay's spiritual growth and call to missions; education and training for missionary work; Sudan Interior Mission (later renamed SIM International) for which he worked (as a missionary, administrative executive and director); missionary work in Nigeria; indigenous church administration (particularly in the Evangelical Church of West Africa or ECWA); Other topics discussed...
Dates: Created: 1910-1994
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Samuel Kirk Mills in which he discusses his childhood in Ghana, conversion to Christianity, involvement with Calvary Road, Inc. and the African Christian Mission, memories of Kwame Nkrumah, the use of drama in evangelism in Ghana, views on the strengths and weaknesses of Christianity in his country, Christianity and Islam in Ghana, different Christian traditions in Ghana, Mills' impressions of Wheaton College and Moody Bible Institute, origins of Africa Christian...
Dates: Created: 1959-1995
Identifier: CN 508
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Barbara Lynn (Miner) Collins in which she describes her childhood; family's religious background; conversion to Christianity; spiritual development in college and young professional life; acceptance as a missionary by Africa Inland Mission (AIM); arrival on the mission field in Kenya; work among the Rendile and Kikuyu peoples; raising children on the mission field; development of women's program at Africa Inland Church Missionary College; work among women refugees in...
Dates: Created: 1995
Identifier: CN 509
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Evelyn Mildred Camp (1915-1999), missionary work in the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo) with Africa Inland Mission (AIM) from 1944 to 1961. Topics discussed include Camp's experience as a child of missionaries, her missionary work in schools for boys and girls at Oicha and Blukwa AIM stations, her family's economic hardships, furloughs, the social life of missionary children, education at Rethy Academy, call to missionary work, training at Columbia...
Dates: Created: 1995
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, questionnaires, reports, and other materials relating to spontaneous revivals on Wheaton College campus in the twentieth century. There are restrictions on some material in this collection. The collection primarily documents the March 1995 revival at the College, largely through oral history interviews conducted during or shortly after the event; also included are thirteen follow-up interviews conducted two years after the revival....
Dates: Created: 1936-1997; Other: Majority of material found in 1994-1995
Identifier: CN 517
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and photographs relating to the ministry of Armin R. Gesswein in which he discusses his childhood as the son of a Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod pastor, the characteristics of that denomination, his education, his conversion, the influence of Paul Rader upon him, his work at Concordia Seminary, his work with Walter Maier, his first pastorate and first experience of revival, his involvement in revival in Norway 1937-1938, friendship with Billy Graham, Charles Fuller, and...
Dates: Created: 1995-1997
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Nancy Duarte-Gomez, a Chilean staffworker with Grupo Biblico Universitario de Chile (GBU, InterVarsity sister movement). Duarte describes her childhood and youth, education, religious background, conversion and spiritual development, the church in Chile, training with Youth With A Mission (YWAM), ministry among students, GBU and its connection to International Fellowship of Evangelical Students (IFES), the country's political climate and its impact on the church,...
Dates: Created: 1961-1995
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Jarbas Da Silva in which he discusses his childhood in San Paulo, Brazil; conversion to Christianity; Baptist Bible College; Russell Shedd; joining the Africa Inland Mission as a missionary to Mozambique; strengths and weaknesses of the church in Brazil; first impressions of Mozambique; the development of Sofala Bible Institute Beira City, Mozambique; strengths and weaknesses of the church in Mozambique; aftermath of the civil war; his perspective on the need for...
Dates: Created: 1958-1994
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews in with Alfredo Enrique Gutierrez in which he discusses memories of father’s imprisonment in Cuba; Cuban Christianity; influence of Communism on home life; immigrating to Miami, Florida; Communist propaganda; influence of Christian and Missionary Alliance pastors; church’s aid in adjusting to new life; homesickness for Cuba; learning English; church life at Los Pinos Nuevos; ministering alongside family in church; conversion experience at 14; Toccoa Falls College;...
Dates: Created: 1963-1995
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Jose Pablo Sánchez-Nuñez, in which he describes his family, childhood in Spain, Protestant Evangelicalism in a predominantly Catholic country, his conversion and spiritual development, training for ministry, work with Decisión, theological education by extension in Spain, American missionaries and their impact in Spain, attempts to unify Spanish Protestants, the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association's Global Mission (of which he was the director in Madrid), his...
Dates: Created: 1957-1995
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Mary Majella Cagney in which she describes her childhood, family, spiritual development, conversion and Christian life, Irish Catholicism, education, interaction between Catholics and Protestants in Ireland, Irish Evangelicalism, charismatics, Evangelical agencies working in the country, women's role in church, Leanne Payne's Pastoral Care Ministries conferences, Wheaton College Graduate School, strengths and weaknesses of the Evangelical church in Ireland,...
Dates: Created: 1960-1996
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, minutes, promotional materials, audio and videotapes, participants lists, schedules, financial records, evaluations, clippings of media coverage, etc., documenting the 1984 and 1986 Summits.The records of each of these meetings document not only the planning for the events and the actual proceedings, but also the network of Black Christian leaders thinking and planning together to address the needs of their own churches and communities, the role of the Black...
Dates: Created: 1983-1986
Scope and Contents Materials relating to the ministry of William E. Blackstone, evangelist, Christian Zionist, and first superintendent of the Chicago Hebrew Mission. These materials include correspondence, organizational reports, miscellaneous mission organization reports, book orders, financial statements involving home and foreign missionaries as well as indigenous Christian workers, people and organizations who received support from the Milton Stewart Evangelistic Fund of which Blackstone was sole trustee,...
Dates: Created: 1891-1979
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Larry Goldberg, in which he decribes his childhood and youth in a traditional Jewish family, conversion, spiritual growth, education, evangelism among Chicago Jews, joining Operation Mobilization, evangelism in Israel and attempts to expel him from the country, evangelistic outreach in Austria, inter-personal conflict, Jewish perceptions and reactions to evangelism, evangelism methods, charismatic issues, divisive missionary couple, the church in Israel, Jews for...
Dates: Created: 1945-1997
Scope and Contents Collection includes annual reports, audio tape, correspondence, legal documents, log books, minute books, newsletters, photograph, and prayer books documenting the American Messianic Fellowship (formerly the Chicago Hebrew Mission) and the Hebrew Christian Fellowship (Florida) a subsidiary of the AMF.
Dates: Created: 1897-1987
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, minutes, promotional materials, audio and videotapes, participant lists, schedules, financial records, evaluations, clippings of media coverage, etc., documenting the 1988 event.The records document not only the planning for the Congress and actual proceedings, but also the network of Black Christian leaders working together to address the spiritual and social needs of their churches and communities, and the role of the Black church in evangelism and...
Dates: Created: 1986-1989
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Lawrence Temfwe in which he discusses his childhood and early manhood in Zambia, his prison term, conversion while in prison, and first steps in his Christian life, his education at the Theological College of Central Africa, his work with Prison Fellowship, the development and programs of Prison Fellowship in Zambia, his participation in the Billy Graham Association's Mission World, impressions of John Stott and Charles Colson, work as a Christian newspaper...
Dates: Created: 1955-1997
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Alex Atempo Sackey-Ansah in which he describes his family, conversion and spiritual development, education, joining PioneersAfrica, distinctives and programs of the mission, his responsibilities, PioneersAfrica director Solomon Aryeetey, Church of Pentecost, the church in Ghana, missions in Africa, African missionaries, church planting philosophy and process, conflict resolution in Africa, American perceptions of Africa and the African church, establishing a...
Dates: Created: 1968-1998
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Rev. Willie Richardson in which he describes his childhood in South Carolina and Pennsylvania, conversion and call to ministry, education at the Philadelphia School of the Bible, founding the Christian Stronghold Baptist Church in Philadelphia; the importance of developing training programs on evangelism, preaching, and family dynamics; the condition of the African American Evangelical community in the city; relations between black and white ministries and churches;...
Dates: Created: 1998
Identifier: CN 558
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Curitis Cole. Topics covered include: Cole’s family background, the development of his Christian faith, his experiences as a missionary kid in Ivory Coast in the 1970s, descriptions of the Christian community in Ivory Coast and the Ivory Coast Academy; Ivorian worship services; his education at Michigan State University, his business career in Denver and his ministry as a youth pastor there, his and his wife's call to missions, his work in Ecuador as an broadcaster...
Dates: Created: 1998
Scope and Contents Correspondence, photo albums, photographs, films, reports, clippings, minutes, slides and other materials relating to J. Elwin Wright's activities as leader of the New England Fellowship and a founder and leader of the National Association of Evangelicals and the World Evangelical Fellowship.The bulk of the collection documents several overseas trips Wright took for the NAE and WEF between 1945 and 1955.[Note: In the Scope and Content description, the notation...
Dates: Created: 1897-1986
Identifier: CN 576
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Raymond Attawia. Topics discussed include his family background and childhood in Sierra Leone, his spiritual seeking as a teenager, conversion through the ministry of the Christians in Action Mission; his involvement in various positions of leadership in the Christians in Action church in the country, including National Superintendent; the civil war in Sierra Leone and its impact on the church; the Evangelical churches in the country in 2002, his attendance at...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, manuals, newsletters, reports and other materials relating to the Vergil Gerber's work as teacher, writer, and leader in church growth studies and Evangelical missions. The collection also contains information on Evangelical missions in the 1970s, especially in Latin America.*****Series 1: Audio TapesTape 1. (28 minutes)....
Dates: Created: 1966-1984
Identifier: CN 581
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Stoyka Todorova Krasteva-Meyer, in which she describes her childhood in Bulgaria, the Communist culture in that country, her conversion to Christianity, InterVarsity Christian Fellowship's work in the country, the beginnings of a an indigenous campus ministry in the country, her attendance at International Fellowship of Evangelical Leaders conferences in Germany, Korea and Bulgaria; impressions of evangelical leaders, such as Samuel Escobar and John Stott; and a...
Scope and Contents Audio tapes, phonograph records, photographs, correspondence, minutes, reports, clippings, speeches, and other materials related toThomas F. Zimmerman's leadership in a number of conservative American Protestant organizations and evangelistic efforts. The bulk of the collection relates to his involvement in the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization both internationally and in the United States, but there is also information on his work with the 1985 American Festival of Evangelism (AFOE),...
Dates: Created: 1955-1990
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with John B. Lutembeka in which he discusses his family and childhood in Tanzania, education in Uganda during the Idi Amin regime, conversion to the Christian faith while attending teacher's college; the development of his personal faith, the founding and growth of Big November Crusade Ministries; the rapid numerical growth of Christianity in Tanzania; the Tanzanian church's characteristics, strengths and weaknesses; his education at the Wheaton College Graduate School,...
Dates: Created: 1969-2001
Scope and Contents Correspondence, memos, reports, notes, magazine and newspaper clippings, brochures and other materials relating to John R. W. Stott’s involvement in the 1974 Lausanne Congress and the Lausanne movement that developed out of it. The collection is particularly strong in material relating to the membership of Stott on the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization and its executive committee; his contribution to drafting several of the major statements of the movement; his chairmanship of the...
Dates: Created: 1974-2000
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, minutes, lists and other materials mainly relating to a series of Protestant Evangelical international evangelism congresses which Taylor helped plan and organize between 1966 and 1974. There is also some material about his leadership in the World Evangelical Fellowship.[Note: In the Scope & Content section, the notation “folder 2-5" means “Box 2, Folder 5"]The materials in this collection document Taylor...
Dates: Created: 1950-1980
Scope and Contents Correspondence, papers, case studies, minutes, participant evaluations, and other documents relating to the planning, holding and follow-up of the conference.
Dates: Created: 1975-1984, n.d.
Scope and Contents Papers, recordings of meeting sessions, planning materials and other documents from the consultation, which examined how Christians in the late twentieth century should present the Christian gospel in large urban settings. The meeting was co-sponsored by Moody Bible Institute, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, and Wheaton College.
Dates: Created: 1985-1986
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, notes, minutes, and manuscripts related to theologian and author Carl Henry, documenting his work with the Institute for Advanced Christian Studies, but which also touch on a few other aspects of his life, including his association with Wheaton College and with the magazine Christianity Today.[Note: In the Scope & Content section, the notation “folder 2-5" means...
Dates: Created: 1925-1984
Scope and Contents Two audio tapes relating to John H. Ockenga, one of the most prominent American Evangelicals of the mid-20th century. The first tape is a sermon preached by Ockenga and the second is an interview in which Ockenga talks about the founding of the National Association of Evangelicals and the development of American Evangelicalism.Arrangement: ChronologicalDate Range: 1979...
Dates: Created: 1979
Scope and Contents Photocopies of essays, theses, articles, tributes, tracts and sermons written by or about Byang Kato, a Nigerian theologian and the first General Secretary of the Association of Evangelicals in Africa and Madagascar (AEAM).Series: Paper RecordsArrangement: Alphabetical by folder title; arranged by Archives staffDate Range: 1962-1996, n.d....
Dates: Created: 1962-1996
Scope and Contents Letters, articles, audio recordings, photographs, and other material collected by Kenneth Fleming relating to the death of five American missionaries in Ecuador in 1956, including his brother Peter Fleming. Other topics include the growth of the church among the Waorani people.[Note: In the Scope & Content section, the notation “folder 2-5" means “Box 2, Folder 5"]Series: Audio Tapes...
Dates: Created: 1946-2011
Scope and Contents Prayer letters and an oral history interviews which document Samuel Douglas Faircloth’s childhood, conversion, education at Wheaton College and elsewhere, and his work as a United States Army chaplain in Italy immediately after World War II, as a church planter in Portugal, and a seminary professor at the Tyndale Theological Seminary in the Netherlands.
Dates: Created: 1949-2011
Scope and Contents Scrapbooks, correspondence, photos, newspaper clippings, and other documents relating to Gustafson’s education and life’s work as a minister, evangelist, Bible teacher, and staff member of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. Particularly well documented are the tours of the Holy Land (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt) he led and lectured to for several decades, his participation in ministries in Africa and Asia, and his active involvement in the worldwide activities of Samaritan’s...
Dates: Created: 1908-2002
Scope and Contents Three oral history interviews with Samuel Boateng in which he describes his family and growing up in an impoverished part of Accra, Ghana; journey to faith as a Christian; personal witness and devotional practices; starting a youth group in his Pentecostal church; education in Ghana, South Africa, United Kingdom, and the United States; leadership in Ghana Fellowship of Evangelical Students at the University of Cape Coast; church planting ministry, influential mentors including Gottfried and...
Scope and Contents Manuscripts, newsletters, photos, digital copies of journals, and other materials relating to the life and ministry of Elisabeth Elliot as they were gathered by Kathryn Deering, employee of Servant Publications who edited Elliot’s newsletter and several of her books.[Note: In the Scope & Content section, the notation “folder 2-5" means “Box 2, Folder 5"]Arrangement: Alphabetically by folder title, titles in...
Dates: Created: 1979-2012
Scope and Contents Correspondence and photographs of Bert and Colleen Elliot, Plymouth Brethren missionaries to Peru from 1949 to 2012. Correspondence is by and large written by Colleen Elliot to her parents and sister. Topics covered include reflections on cultural and spiritual differences between the United States and Peru, the challenges of missionary life and language divides, interactions with missionaries from different denominations, medical work in rural areas, evangelism, and the spiritual development...
Dates: Created: 1943-1994
Identifier: CN 707
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Douglas W. Stewart in which he describes his ministry with the International Fellowship of Evangelical Students (IFES) in South and Central America and InterVarsity Christian Fellowship from 1963-1991. Topics discussed include Stewart’s family background, spiritual growth, education at Colombia Bible College and Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, leadership, roles, and structure of IFES, political, social, and religious context in South and Central America, gender...
Collection — Multiple Containers
Scope and Contents The Francis and Edith Schaeffer papers are organized into two major series, one for each individual. One sub-series that is found under each author is Book Manuscripts. Lectures is a sub-series under Francis Schaeffer, as is Media and Publications. Secondary Material is a third series in the collection. The manuscripts sections of both major series contain the holographic and typescript versions of three books, Hidden Art, True Spirituality, and a book on Ecology. The lectures of Francis...
Dates: Created: 1968-2009; Other: Majority of material found in 1968-1969; Other: Date acquired: 00/00/1993
Found in: Buswell Library Special Collections
- Subject: Evangelicalism X
- Billy Graham Center Archives 151
- Buswell Library Special Collections 7
- Graham, Billy, 47
- Wheaton College (Ill.) 47
- Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. 34
- National Association of Evangelicals. 18
- World Evangelical Fellowship. 18
- Wheaton College (Ill.). 17
- Edman, V. Raymond (Victor Raymond), 1900-1967. 16
- Taylor, Clyde W. 15
- Youth for Christ International. 14
- Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization. 13
- Ockenga, Harold John, 13
- Bright, Bill. 12
- Campus Crusade for Christ International. 12
- Perkins, John, 12
- Henry, Carl F. H. 11
- McIntire, Carl, 11
- Christian and Missionary Alliance. 10
- Dain, Arthur John, 10
- Fuller Theological Seminary. 10
- Islam 10
- Jones, Bob, 10
- Latin America Mission. 10
- Moody Bible Institute. 10
- Padilla, C. Rene. 10
- World Council of Churches. 10
- Catholic Church 9
- Ford, Leighton. 9
- HCJB (Radio station : Quito, Ecuador) 9
- Rader, Paul, 9
- Wright, J. Elwin. 9
- Wyrtzen, Jack, 9
- Africa Inland Mission. 8
- Armerding, Hudson T. 8
- Christian and Missionary Alliance 8
- Coggins, Wade T. 8
- Fuller, Charles Edward, 8
- Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship. 8
- International Fellowship of Evangelical Students. 8
- Jones, Clarence W. 8
- National Religious Broadcasters (U.S.) 8
- Nixon, Richard M. 8
- Skinner, Tom, 8
- Woods, C. Stacey, 8
- Wycliffe Bible Translators. 8
- Adeyemo, Tokunboh. 7
- Association of Evangelicals of Africa and Madagascar. 7
- Chicago Gospel Tabernacle (Ill.) 7
- China Inland Mission. 7
- Colson, Charles W. 7
- Elliot, Jim, 7
- Evangelical Foreign Missions Association. 7
- Evangelism-in-Depth. 7
- Halverson, Richard C. 7
- Howard, David M. 7
- Palau, Luis, 7
- Smith, Oswald J. 7
- Stott, John R. W. 7
- Voice of Calvary Ministries (U.S.) 7
- Escobar, Samuel E. 6
- Frizen, E. L. 6
- Glasser, Arthur F. 6
- Ironside, H. A. 6
- Little, Paul E. 6
- National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. 6
- Osei-Mensah, Gottfried. 6
- Prison Fellowship. 6
- Schaeffer, Francis A. 6
- Sudan Interior Mission. 6
- Weary, Dolphus, 6
- Winter, Ralph D. 6
- World Vision International. 6
- Youth for Christ/USA. 6
- Armstrong, Ben. 5
- Bertermann, Eugene R. 5
- Carter, Jimmy, 1924- 5
- Christianity Today, Inc. 5
- Crawford, Percy B. 5
- Evangelical Alliance Mission. 5
- Ford, Gerald R., 5
- Freed, Paul E. 5
- Gaebelein, Frank Ely, 5
- Graham, Ruth Bell. 5
- Hoffman, Oswald C. J. 5
- Interdenominational Foreign Mission Association of North America. 5
- Johnson, Torrey Maynard, 5
- Kato, Byang H. 5
- Navigators. 5
- New England Fellowship. 5
- Perkins, Vera Mae. 5
- Saint, Rachel. 5
- Sunday, Billy, 5
- Taylor, Herbert John, 5
- Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. 5
- Van Der Puy, Abe C. 5
- Wagner, C. Peter. 5
- Walvoord, John F. 5
- Africa Inland Church. 4
- Association of Church Missions Committees. 4
- Barrows, Cliff. 4
- Blanchard, Charles A. 4 ∧ less