Showing Collections: 1 - 50 of 56
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Kenneth Gieser and letters reporting to the Southern Presbyterian Mission Board in Nashville, TN on the Gieser’s work in China, written between October 19, 1934, and November 1, 1936. Also contains audio tapes and transcripts of autobiographical statements.
Identifier: CN 092
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, correspondence, photographs, and a manuscript that describe Robert B. Ekvall's education at Wheaton College, work as a missionary in China and Tibet, and military and diplomatic activities during World War II and after in China and Southeast Asia.
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Elizabeth Stair Small in which she describes her missionary experiences in China between the earliest communist revolutions; includes customs, evangelizing methods, assistance of Chinese Christians in areas of central China; post-war pastoring in the U.S. The time period covered by the interviews is 1904-1980.
Elizabeth Small was interviewed by Robert Shuster on October 28, 1980 at the Billy Graham Center Archives at Wheaton College.
Elizabeth Small was interviewed by Robert Shuster on October 28, 1980 at the Billy Graham Center Archives at Wheaton College.
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, minutes, audio tapes, clippings, photographs, maps, posters, etc., related to EFMA Administration and its service to its member missions.Includes documentation of persecution of Protestants in Roman Catholic Colombia, Italy and Spain; efforts to broaden American awareness of conditions; and attempts to apply pressure through the US State Dept. Persons prominently featured include EFMA's Executive Directors Clyde Taylor, Wade Coggins, and Paul McKaughan. ...
Identifier: CN 169
Scope and Contents Oral History Interview with Harold Paul Adolph, in which he discusses his boyhood in China as the son of missionaries with China Inland Mission, conditions in China, his education at Wheaton College, medical education at the University of Pennsylvania, decision to become a missionary, and his ministry in Ethiopia as a medical missionary in African with Sudan Interior Mission; American missions in Ethiopia; family life on the mission field, and work with the Christian Medical Society. The time...
Identifier: CN 171
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and personal papers of Albert and Mary Lee Bobby, missionaries in Lisbon and Santiago do Cacem, Portugal, under The Evangelical Alliance Mission (TEAM). Collection includes interviews, articles, correspondence, prayer letters, manuscript notes, and other material from the Bobbys about their mission work, including evangelism and radio broadcasting. The correspondence also includes information on various theological issues and American Christian leaders. The oral history...
Identifier: CN 186
Scope and Contents Two oral history interviews, manuscript material, photographs, and memorabilia relatingn to Marion Douglas Hursh's work with Sudan Interior Mission's Kano Eye Hospital, Kano in Nigeria from 1942-1962. Topics covered concern Hursh's education and work as a medical missionary at the Sudan Interior Mission's Kano Eye Hospital in Kano, Nigeria, as well as various aspects of church life and mission activity in Nigeria. Events described in the interviews cover the time period from 1904 to 1982.
Scope and Contents Correspondence, diaries, articles, clippings, manuscripts, photographs, photo albums, songbooks, lecture and sermon notes, maps, audio tapes, etc. related to the Ian and Helen Anderson's mission work with the Overseas Missionary Fellowship. The materials document their careers in China until 1951, in Taiwan until 1956, and in the Philippines until 1971, and again in Taiwan until 1974. Materials also reflect their work as regional representatives for OMF following their retirement in 1974....
Identifier: CN 242
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Ruth Edna DeVelde Hess (1909-1997), a missionary with the Plymouth Brethren Church at Sakeji School for missionary children in Zambia. Topics discussed include: Hess' life as a child in Wheaton, Illinois, and education at Wheaton Academy and Wheaton College; marriage to Lyndon Roth Hess; calling to be teachers of missionary children; decision to go to Africa; their work at Sakeji School from 1932 to 1982; and descriptions of life and customs in Zambia among the Lunda...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, diaries, notes, articles, photographs, and annual reports relating to Jessie McDonald's medical work in China from 1913-1952 with China Inland Mission. The documents include information on evangelistic outreach and the nature of health conditions in China. The materials also describe the political and social upheavals occurring in China during the first half of the 1900s.The correspondence by Dr. Mc Donald is supplemented by some correspondence of her co-workers...
Identifier: CN 252
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Robert Wesley Brain and Joan Gordon Brain, in which they discuss their life and faith, particularly their work as missionaries in Zambia with Africa Evangelical Fellowship. The Brains were interviewed separately for this collection. In the Robert Brain interview, he discusses his life on the mission field in Angola as a child and as an adult serving Africa Evangelical Fellowship at Catota Bible Institute until 1975, Manna Bible Institute in Zambia, translating the...
Identifier: CN 255
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Helen Nowack Frame (1908-1999) in which she discusses her childdhood growing up in China, decision to become a missionary for Overseas Missionary Fellowship, education at Wheaton College, years of service in China, culture and political events in China; leaving China in 1951 with her husband Raymond and their children and resettlement in the Philippines, teaching at Faith Academy, development of the Bible Institute, return and activities in Wheaton. The time period...
Identifier: CN 256
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Malcolm Maurice Sawyer (1919-2007) and with Helen Irvin Sawyer, in which the Sawyers discuss their childhood, education, and working for the Christian and Missionary Alliance in China, 1948-1950 and in Laos, 1950-1975. Mission activities in Laos include church planting, training of pastors, and medical assistance to the Khamu and Hmong peoples, language study, Vietnam, Thailand and Tibet, transfer to Laos, cultural differences, political situation in Vietnam,...
Identifier: CN 259
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Donald Arthur Cook (1923-2014) in which he describes his service with the Overseas Missionary Fellowship in Japan between 1956-1972. Topics discussed include upbringing, education at Wheaton College, experiences in the United States Air Force, American response to WWII, decision to join China Inland Mission (later OMF), evangelistic methods in Japan, administrative work, language difficulties, administrative duties in OMF headquarters in Hokkaido and in Tokyo,...
Identifier: CN 263
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Margaret Johanna (Larson) Carlson in which she describes growing up in Ecuador as the child of missionaries, her education at Westmont and Wheaton Colleges, her nursing experience, and her missionary service with her husband at the Christian and Missionary Alliance Seminary in Hong Kong. Other topics discussed include: the founding of a HCJB radio station by her father, Reuben Larson, and her involvement in Wheaton College's HNGR Program. Individuals described...
Scope and Contents Diaries, notebooks, correspondence, clippings, financial records, tracts, photographs, and certificates belonging to Malla Moe, missionary to South Africa, 1892-1953, under Scandinavian Alliance Mission (later TEAM). Correspondence documents evangelistic work among South African tribes in Swaziland and Tongoland and includes descriptions of the Boar War, life in African communities, and church growth.The bulk of the material is in the correspondence files of TEAM which were labeled...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, diaries, manuscripts, notes, clippings, and photographs relating to the Stauffachers' work as missionaries with Africa Inland Mission, chiefly from 1911 to the early 1940s. The materials document their careers from the earliest stages, describing their responsibilities and everyday life, primarily in Kenya and the Belgian Congo, but also in Uganda & Tanzania, their developing relationship by correspondence prior to Mrs. Stauffacher's arrival in Kenya and their subsequent...
Identifier: CN 282
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Bonnie Jo Adelsman Adolph in which she discussses her missionary service in Ethiopia with Sudan Interior Mission from 1966-1974. Topics discussed include Adolph's education at Wheaton College, decision to become a missionary, living in Taiwan during her husband's military service, reasons for choosing Sudan Interior Mission, her husband's medical work in Ethiopia, observations about Sudanese culture, the church in Sudan, and the Adolphs short term mission service in...
Identifier: CN 284
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Gladys Lyle Wright (1902-1994), in which she discusses her work as a teacher in Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo). Topics discussed include: Wright's family background, education at Wheaton College and Moody Bible Institute, her work as a missionary in the Belgian Congo for the Africa Inland Mission, memories of the Congolese people and culture, and her experiences at Wheaton when she was on the staff of the College after retriring from the mission...
Identifier: CN 288
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Vincent Leroy Crossett (1907-1999) in which he describes his education at Wheaton and Westminster Seminary, missionary work with China Inland Mission/Overseas Missionary Fellowship in China and Taiwan, and pastoral work in a local church in Hawaii. Topics discussed include Crossett's education at Wheaton College and Westminster Seminary; decision to join China Inland Mission; language school; evangelism methods; characteristics of the Chinese church; CIM's decision...
Identifier: CN 290
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Merle Ashel Steely, who worked as a missionary with Sudan Interior Mission between 1951 and 1977 in Liberia and Nigeria. Topic discussed include: Steely's conversion while in military service, education and employment at Wheaton College (including the 1950 revival there), his missionary work in Liberia at radio station ELWA and with Sudan Interior Mission in Nigeria, teaching in mission and government schools, evangelism and church planting, Billy Graham's 1960...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with David Livingstone Farah, in which he discusses his upbringing, education at Wheaton College, work as an administrator with Wycliffe Bible Translators in Peru and Bolivia, and relationships with other religious bodies, national groups and governments. Other topics include the 1950 revival at Wheaton College; Wycliffe jungle training in Mexico; the Catholic Church in Bolivia and the prevalence of syncretism; differences between Peru and Bolivia; description of William...
Identifier: CN 311
Scope and Contents Water color paintings and oral history interviews with Charles J. Guth, relating to Guth’s missionary work in Africa with the Sudan Interior Mission. Topics covered by the interviews include: Guth’s education at Wheaton College, preparation for the mission field as a worker with Sudan Interior Mission, his life, work, and contacts as a missionary among the Koma and Maban people of the Sudan; the culture of these peoples; the effect of Sudan's independence on the church in the Sudan, linguistics...
Scope and Contents Collection 312 consists of letters, oral history interviews, articles, minutes of meetings, reports and other relating to Diane Hawkins' missionary service in Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia) as well as the tapes of an oral history interview conducted several years later. Among the topics covered are: TEAM's evangelistic, and educational work in Rhodesia; the lifestyle, music, and beliefs of Shona people; the civil war between white government and the black nationalist guerrillas which raged while...
Identifier: CN 314
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Martha H. Philips (1905-1996) in which she describes her childhood, education, missionary work in China with China Inland Mission at Chefoo School as a teacher of missionary children, her internment by the Japanese at Temple Hill and Wei Xian camps, repatriation, working with Wycliffe Bible Translators among the Zapotec Indians in southern Mexico, and traveling throughout the world representing the mission. The time period covered by the interviews is roughly...
Identifier: CN 331
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Reuben Archer Torrey III and a videotape of the Otterbein United Brethren Missionary Convention in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania on April 23, 1986.Audio TapesOral history interview with Reuben Archer Torrey in which he describes his childhood in China as the son of Presbyterian missionaries; his experiences at boarding schools in China and Korea; his grandfather, Dr. R. A. Torrey, Sr.; his work as an Episcopalian parish...
Identifier: CN 335
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and paper records relating to Ralph Shannon’s life and ministry as a medical missionary in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo).Audio Tapes Four oral history interviews with Ralph Shannon, recorded on eight reels of audio tape. Topics covered include Shannon's childhood in Belgian Congo (Zaire) with his missionary parents, Wheaton College undergraduate and graduate education, service in Zaire as a medical missionary...
Scope and Contents Letters, articles, over 1200 photos, maps, diary and other material relating to Victor Plymire's missionary career in Tibet and China under the auspices of the Assemblies of God. The collection contains information not only on his evangelistic work among various strata of Tibetan society but also about his evangelistic/exploration expedition of 1927-28 which crossed from northeastern to southwestern Tibet; Tibetan culture and society; the Buddhist religion; and the early history of relations...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, form letters, financial and statistical reports, minutes, memos and promotional material related to IFMA administration and its service to its member missions.The files on IFMA members and numerous other Christian agencies predominate. Also includes series of maps of Latin American countries identifying nondenominational and denominational mission activity. Numerous mission-related subjects are documented. Persons prominently featured include Jack Frizen, Billy...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, audio tapes, photographs, diaries, and periodicals documenting the career of Elias Hatcher as a pilot for Mission Aviation Fellowship in Mexico from 1949 to 1968, and his time as a mission administrator at the U. S. headquarters of MAF from 1968 until his death in 1971. Diaries document Hatcher's military service and education at Wheaton College; correspondence includes love letters between Hatcher and his future wife, and letters with their six children when they were away at...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, personnel files, legal documents, financial files, scrapbooks, almost 3,000 photographs.
Topics documented include the creation and activity of the mission work in Burma, China, India, Pakistan, and Japan, its work among orphans and women.
Topics documented include the creation and activity of the mission work in Burma, China, India, Pakistan, and Japan, its work among orphans and women.
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Paul Ernest Freed (1918-1996) in which he describes the founding of Trans World Radio in 1952, the history of the development of its administrative policies and work from that time to 1981, and about the use of radio in missionary work. Other topics discussed include: Freed's childhood as the son of Christian and Missionary Alliance workers in Syria, his education in Jerusalem and at Wheaton College, the business he started to help pay his way through college during...
Identifier: CN 386
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Charles H. Dawson (1916-2000) in which he describes his family background; conversion; involvement in street preaching; jail ministry and other work in the Camden area; involvement in the work of the Afro-American Missionary Crusade; and philosophy of Christian work. Other topics discussed include Dawson's training at the New Jersey Bible School; street preaching; Montrose Waite; Dawson's trips to Africa from the 1960s through the 1980s; training African evangelists;...
Identifier: CN 387
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and transcripts with William M. Miller in which he describes his education at Princeton, Christian faith, and work as a Presbyterian missionary to Iran from 1919 to 1962. Besides descriptions of his evangelistic, pastoral, and educational work, he also describes many aspects of Iranian and Islamic society. Most of the transcripts are of interviews done for the Presbyterian Historical Society.
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and manuscript, relating to the ministry of Janet Kuhns, missionary among the Dayak people in West Kalimantan, Indonesia under the auspices of the Christian and Missionary Alliance (CM&A).[NOTE: In the Scope and Content description, the notation "Folder 1-1" means box 1, Folder 1.]Series: Audio TapesThree oral history interviews with Janet Kuhns in which she...
Identifier: CN 401
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Karl G. Dortzbach in which he describes his childhood and youth, influence of his family, education at Wheaton College and Westminster Theological Seminary, and missionary experience in Ethiopia (short term with the Orthodox Presbyterian Church) and in Kenya. Subjects covered include missiology, conversion, raising children on the mission field, marital relationships on the mission field, church life in a Nairobi congregation, proliferation of parachurch groups and...
Identifier: CN 402
Scope and Contents Audio recordings, including an oral history interview, diary, and several letters, relating to the career and ministry of Debbie Dortzbach, missionary to Kenya and Eritrea with the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and later the Reformed Presbyterian Church from 1973 to 1988.Series: Audio TapesOne oral history interview with Debbie Dortzbach in which she describes her describes her childhood, education at Wheaton College, and missionary work in...
Scope and Contents Collection of letters written primarily by Robert Holmes and his wife, Frances (Frannie) to their families in the United States, while they served as missionaries with the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in Sri Lanka from 1947 to 1960. A few of the letters are from the children, Bobby and Carol Lou, to their grandparents, and there are a few letters sent to the Holmes family. (The originals were retained by the donor.) The letters date from 1947 to 1960, and were mostly...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, minutes, promotional materials, incorporation documents, news releases, statistics, news/prayer letters, clippings, photographs, negatives, films, and financial records related to the origins, development and operation of SEND.Includes information on ministry in Japan and the Philippines, particularly following World War II and later in in Alaska. Limited information available on work in Hong Kong, Spain and Taiwan. Persons prominently featured include...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, papers and speech manuscripts relating to the ministry of Wade T. Coggins, Christian worker with the Christian and Missionary Alliance and the Evangelical Foreign Mission Association.[Note: In the Scope & Content section, the notation "folder 2-5" means "box 2, Folder 5"]Series: Audio TapesSix oral history interviews with Wade T. Coggins in which he...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview and prayer letters relating to the ministry of Helen Elizabeth Berry, missionary with the Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society in Taiwan from 1966-1990.Series: Audio TapesOral history interview with Helen E. Berry in which she describes her youth, family, conversion, call to be a missionary, education at Wheaton College, missionary work with the Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society in Taiwan, church...
Scope and Contents Diaries, photographs, and miscellaneous materials about Elwood L. Davis and his medical missionary work in Kenya for the Africa Inland Mission (AIM). Topics covered include brief descriptions of daily life in Africa, of his army medical service during World War I, places visited, colleagues entertained, services held, birth of his sons, death of his wife, etc.; diaries cover, with a few gaps, the years 1902 until his death in 1961; includes information on his father, various licenses and...
Scope and Contents One oral history interview with Paul Henry Bartel (1904-2001) in which he describes his parents' work in China with orphans, his own childhood in that growing up in China, his conversion to Christianity and anecdotes from his long career as a missionary. Other topics discussed include: The Boxer Uprising and its aftermath; education, including high school at a Holiness Mission school; returning to the United States for college and experiencing culture shock; missionary training institute;...
Identifier: CN 464
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Eileen J. Kuhn in which she describes her family background; her conversion to Christianity; her medical training as a nurse; life at Moody Bible Institute in the late 1940s; China Inland Mission at about the same time; her call to foreign missions; her work at the CIM retirement home in Toronto; descriptions of John and Isobel Kuhn; work among the Lisu people in Thailand and Burma; translation of the Bible into the Lisu language; contacts with a former Kuomintang...
Identifier: CN 468
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Elizabeth Quackenbush Stough (1913-2009) in which she discusses her parents, childhood, education, conversion, attendance at Moody Bible Institute, call to be a missionary, joining Africa Inland Mission, travel to Africa, work in French Equatorial Africa, evangelistic field trips, her husband Paul Stough, her work among women in the Belgian Congo, the growth of the Africa Inland Church, the independence of the Congo, the Congolese civil war and Simba uprising, the...
Identifier: CN 470
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Sadie Custer (1911-2007) in which she discusses her childhood, conversion, education at Moody Bible Institute, joining the China Inland Mission, arrival in China in 1936, the Chinese language, work in Shensi province, Bible teaching, transition from missionary to Chinese leadership, the Three Self Movement, the Communist revolution in China and its effect on missions, the Sino-Japanese Conflict, work in Malaysia among Chinese, living in an area in Malaysia contested...
Identifier: CN 478
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Paul Adiran Buyse (1926-2017), Africa Inland Mission worker in the Belgian Congo/Zaire. Topics covered include Buyse's childhood and youth as the son of AIM missionary parents in the Congo; education at Rethy Academy, Northwestern Schools, and Moody Bible Institute; work with North Arkansas Gospel Mission, spiritual hardships of being a missionary; his work in the Congo among pygmies; development of the Africa Inland Church in the Congo, transition from missionary...
Identifier: CN 479
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with William Adam Stier (1912-2004), missionary with Africa Inland Mission in Tanzania from 1938 to 1978. Topics covered in the two sessions include his youth and conversion, marriage, Bible school education, call to missions, his work with the Sakuma and Tuzu peoples, his ministry as a teacher of African pastors; the transition from mission to indigenous church control in Tanzania, the policies and personnel of AIM, Emil Sywulka, political changes in Tanzania, polygamy...
Scope and Contents Diaries, photographs, correspondence, and a scrapbook relating to Mabel Easton Buyse’s missionary service with Africa Inland Mission among the Dungu and Bafuka people groups in Belgian Congo (later, Zaire) before her marriage and later service in Aru and Kasengu, Belgian Congo; Goli, Uganda; and Opari, Sudan. Buyse was involved with setting up, operating, and teaching in schools in each place she worked. The scrapbook deals with the 1941 sinking of the Zamzam, in which her brother-in-law,...
- Wheaton College (Ill.) 25
- China Inland Mission. 11
- Moody Bible Institute. 11
- Overseas Missionary Fellowship. 10
- Islam 9
- Africa Inland Mission. 8
- Chung-kuo kuo min tang. 7
- Sudan Interior Mission. 7
- Wheaton College (Ill.). 7
- Christian and Missionary Alliance 6
- Edman, V. Raymond (Victor Raymond), 1900-1967. 6
- Christian and Missionary Alliance. 5
- Evangelical Alliance Mission. 5
- Graham, Billy, 5
- Moody Bible Institute 5
- Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 4
- Wycliffe Bible Translators. 4
- Africa Inland Church. 3
- Association of Church Missions Committees. 3
- Committee to Assist Missionary Education Overseas. 3
- Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society. 3
- Evangelical Churches of West Africa. 3
- Evangelical Foreign Missions Association. 3
- Frizen, E. L. 3
- Mission Aviation Fellowship. 3
- Stam, Elisabeth Alden Scott, 3
- Stam, John Cornelius, 3
- Stauffacher, Florence. 3
- World Council of Churches. 3
- World Evangelical Fellowship. 3
- Adolph, Harold Paul. 2
- Africa Evangelical Fellowship. 2
- Armerding, Hudson T. 2
- Assemblies of God 2
- Assemblies of God. 2
- Association of Evangelicals of Africa and Madagascar. 2
- Becker, Carl K., 2
- Bell, L. Nelson 2
- Bible Institute of Los Angeles. 2
- Bible Institute of the Philippines (Valenzuela, Philippines) 2
- Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. 2
- Blanchard, Charles A. 2
- Buswell, J. Oliver. 2
- Buyse, John. 2
- Buyse, Leonard. 2
- Buyse, Mabel. 2
- Carlson, Robert Dean. 2
- Christian Medical Society. 2
- Coggins, Wade T. 2
- Dortzbach, Debbie. 2
- Dortzbach, Karl. 2
- Ekvall, Robert Brainerd, 2
- Evangelical Committee on Latin America. 2
- Evangelical Literature Overseas. 2
- Far East Broadcasting Company. 2
- Feng, Yu-hsiang, 2
- Gospel Recordings, Inc. 2
- Interdenominational Foreign Mission Association of North America. 2
- Kuhn, Isobel. 2
- Kuhn, John Becker. 2
- Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization. 2
- Le Bar, Mary Evelyn, 2
- Machen, J. Gresham 2
- McIntire, Carl, 2
- Missionary Internship. 2
- Mixter, Russell Lowell, 2
- Mortenson, Vernon. 2
- Narramore Christian Foundation. 2
- National Association of Evangelicals. 2
- Paul, Austin, 2
- Rift Valley Academy (Kijabe, Kenya) 2
- SEND International. 2
- Stauffacher, John. 2
- Stough, Paul Pinney. 2
- Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions. 2
- Taylor, Clyde W. 2
- Tenney, Merrill C. (Merrill Chapin), 1904-1985 2
- Van Dusen, George C. 2
- Wheaton Bible Church (Ill.) 2
- Wheaton Eye Clinic (Ill.) 2
- World Wide Pictures, Inc. 2
- Wright, J. Elwin. 2
- Youth for Christ International. 2
- ZamZam (Ship) 2
- Zhongguo guo min dang. 2
- Adolph, Bonnie. 1
- Africa Inland Mission (AIM). 1
- Africa Inland Mission, International. 1
- African American Missionary Crusade. 1
- Allen, Franklin W. 1
- Allen, Roland, 1
- Allenby, Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1
- Alley, Rewi, 1
- American Bible Society. 1
- American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 1
- American Leprosy Missions. 1
- Anderson, Helen. 1
- Anderson, Ian Rankin. 1
- Arctic Missions, Inc. 1
- Armstrong, Philip E. 1 ∧ less