Showing Collections: 1 - 50 of 72
Scope and Contents Correspondence, proposals, reports, minutes, programs, publications brochures, budgets, audio tapes, clippings, photographs, and video tapes related to the founding, ground breaking and dedication and continuing work of the Billy Graham Center at Wheaton College as a research and training center in evangelism, and its ongoing activities. Includes audio and video recordings of Center-sponsored conferences (on themes including evangelism and evangelistic preaching, outreach to various...
Identifier: CN 005
Scope and Contents Correspondence, clippings, reports, financial records, press releases, promotional material, forms, newsletters, and oral history interviews relating to Vernon W. Patterson's (1892-1991) active participation and leadership in evangelistic activities in the Charlotte, North Carolina, area. The papers focus particularly on his involvement in various evangelical lay organizations and other institutions and the early career of Billy Graham. The interviews were recorded on 3/4/85 and 3/5/85 and...
Scope and Contents This collection contains drafts of John Pollock’s 1966 and 2004/2005 biographies of Billy Graham. The 1966 version was originally published as Billy Graham - The Authorized Biography. This book was reprinted in revised and expanded edition in 1969, with the title Crusades / Twenty Years with Billy Graham. It brought the story of Graham’s life up to 1969. Pollock in 1979 published another Biography of Graham entitled ...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, memos, reports, forms, manuals, statistical summaries, publicity materials, newspaper clippings relating to the counseling and follow-up systems the Navigators created and supervised for Billy Graham Evangelistic Association meetings between 1950 and 1957. Records document the details of this system for counseling people who came forward at BGEA evangelistic meetings and maintaining contact with them as they began to develop a Christian lifestyle. For some crusades, besides...
Identifier: CN 020
Scope and Contents Correspondence, photographs, reports, publications, posters, minutes of meetings, and other documentation of Herbert J. Taylor's long involvement in the leadership of such organizations as Child Evangelism, Youth for Christ, Christian Service Brigade, Pioneer Girls, Young Life, National Association of Evangelicals, Fuller Seminary, Christian Workers Foundation, and Inter-Varsity as well as his role in the planning and development of Billy Graham's Chicago crusades and of Key '73. Other records...
Scope and Contents Minutes of the planning committee, correspondence, drafts of the Chicago Call, reports, and magazine coverage of the meeting. Documents deal with the efforts to draft a document outlining the need for Protestant Evangelicals to recover what the participants saw as the theology and practice of historical Christianity.[NOTE: In the Scope & Content section, the notation "folder 2-5" means box 2, folder 5.]This collection constitutes almost all the existing written and...
Scope and Contents Newsletters, sermon manuscripts, scrapbooks, programs, pamphlets, photo- graphs, negatives, brochures, a taped sermon, slides, thesis materials, etc., which document Paul Rader's life and ministry. The material deals mostly with his radio work and the organizations he founded, including the Chicago Gospel Tabernacle. Additional material includes materials gathered about him for a planned biography, sermons of other preachers who spoke at the Tabernacle, newsletters and magazines published by...
Identifier: CN 040
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Chicago manufacturer and inventor, Andrew Wyzenbeek, who was very active as a layman in evangelistic work. Among other topics he discusses his early life in Holland, New York City, and Iowa at the turn of the century; his travels in Central and South America; his acquaintance with Billy Sunday, Paul Rader, and Peter Deyneka; the beginnings of the Chicago Gospel Tabernacle; and the beginning of Paul Rader's radio ministry. The collection also contains a folder with a...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, scrapbook, drafts, articles, and research notes which reflect Tenney's active participation in a number of evangelical ministries, but particularly her work with the Woman's Union Missionary Society (WUMS), especially the labor she put into writing a history of that organization. The bulk of the collection consists of manuscripts of that history.The contents of this collection to a small degree illustrate Mrs. Tenney's active participation as an officer in a number of...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, minutes, memos, reports, manuscripts of speeches, press releases, newsletters, staff manuals, audio and video tapes of sponsored events, photographs of events and personnel, and other administrative materials. The Committee grew out of the 1974 International Congress on World Evangelization. Its basic doctrinal statement was the Lausanne Covenant and it had the mission "to encourage and stimulate the involvement of churches, denominations, ministries, networks and individuals...
Scope and Contents Minutes, constitution and by-laws, clippings, newsletters, manuals, pamphlets, directories, press releases, audio tapes, videotapes, photographs, posters, club yearbooks, correspondence, etc., about the founding, development and growth, and activities of Youth for Christ in the USA and internationally.Collection documents organizational policies, correspondence of the organization's presidents, conventions and Bible quiz competitions, the operation of Campus Life clubs, Youth...
Scope and Contents News releases, prayer letters, reports and field studies. The documents all related to the work of OMS which had workers in Asia, Europe, Africa, and Latin America in the areas of radio broadcasting and Bible distribution. Key OMS figures featured include founder Charles Cowman, his wife, Lettie Burd Cowman, Wesley Duewel, and E.A. Kilbourne.[NOTE: In the Scope and Content Section, the notation "folder 5-2" means "box 5, folder 2."]The collection consists of annual...
Scope and Contents Reports of Director's Conference, President's correspondence and feasibility studies; literature and publication, broadcast policies, promotional brochures, program schedules, program sponsorship, Russian Micro New Testament, plus miscellaneous items.[NOTE: In the Scope and Content description, the notation "folder 2-5" means box 2 folder 5.]The collection contains correspondence, reports, studies, broadcast policy statements, promotional material, programs schedules,...
Scope and Contents Microfilm edition of originals in Winona Lake, Indiana, including correspondence, sermons, reports, revival ephemera, and scrapbooks dealing mainly with the career of evangelist Billy Sunday from its beginning to his death and about the work of his wife Helen, who, besides acting as his general manager, was a fundamentalist leader in her own right, especially after his death. Persons featured include numerous fundamentalist figures and institutions; sermon topics cover a wide range of issues...
Scope and Contents Papers of Dutch Christian worker Corrie ten Boom. Includes information on her father Casper, her imprisonment in a concentration camp during World War II, her work among refugees after the war, her travels as an evangelist, the work of her two foundations, and the production of the film THE HIDING PLACE. There are restrictions on the use of this collection. The collection includes audio tapes, correspondence, film, notebooks, photos, photo albums, and video tapes.[Note: In the Scope...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, personnel files, minutes of meetings, films, videos, audio recordings, and other materials documenting the work of the mission in east Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Zaire, Tanzania, Sudan, the Central African Republic) and other regions of the continent.The bulk of the collection consists of the files of the US branch of the mission, although there are also significant amounts of material from the international office and the Tanzanian field office. Topics covered...
Identifier: CN 083
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, slides, photographs, correspondence and a personal diary created by Dr. Richard E. Scheel, missionary to Ethiopia with Sudan Interior Mission (S.I.M.) from 1951-1971.
Scope and Contents Correspondence, audiotapes, photographs, financial reports, slides, blueprints, and memos related to ICB's activities as support organization and professional association for Protestant Christian radio and television broadcasters, largely engaged in evangelism.Materials include data on the International Communications Congress in Tokyo (1970), Muslim Conference (1974), and survey questionnaire for ICB's WORLD DIRECTORY OF RELIGIOUS RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING (1973). ...
Scope and Contents Microfilm of correspondence, reports, excerpts from sermons and other writings collected by Rev. Edward P. Torjesen on the life and ministry of Fredrik Franson (1852-1908). Materials include articles written about evangelistic work, prophecy conferences, missionary efforts on several continents, and the recruitment of Christian workers. Persons featured include mission founders A.B. Simpson and James Hudson Taylor. Materials include articles in several languages. Documents are arranged...
Identifier: CN 089
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, films, videos relating to Paul P. Stough’s missionary service in the Belgian Congo with Africa Inland Mission. Materials contain information on Stough's father, Henry Stough, Wheaton College, Paul Stough's work as a missionary for Africa Inland Mission in the Belgian Congo (Zaire) and Kenya from the 1920s to the 1970s, and generally on the spread of Christianity in Africa.
Scope and Contents Correspondence, minutes, reports, monographs, financial records, mailing lists, questionnaires, and photographs related to the origin and activity of CAMEO.Subjects covered include theological education in developing countries throughout the world, programmed learning, a self-evaluation program for institutions, Theological Education by Extension (TEE), education of prospective pastors and Christian workers, IFMA and EFMA as the sponsoring bodies of CAMEO and activities of US-based...
Scope and Contents Films, including a home movie, microfilm of scrapbooks, notebooks, clippings, and sermons of William Bell Riley and others.The two black and white 16mm films of Riley, one sound and one silent. The silent film is a home movie of Riley with family and friends. Two of the friends are Homer Hammontree, who is shown reciting a poem, and Harry Rimmer. According to the donor of the records, "There is one scene of Dr. Riley having a discussion about the length of the days during...
Identifier: CN 096-096
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Wayne G. Bragg (1931-2009), in which he describes his missionary experiences in Brazil and the Caribbean working with university students, his student days at Wheaton College, and his experience at Wheaton College as a faculty member. Dr. Bragg was interviewed by Mary Ann Buffington at Wheaton College on February 15 and May 9, 1980.
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews in which Bruce Finley Hunt (1903-1992) discusses his boyhood in Korea, college and seminary education at Wheaton College, Rutgers University and Princeton Seminary; a portion (1928-1942) of his missionary work in Korea and Manchuria; and his impressions of Korean culture. The time period covered by the interviews is roughly 1903-1976.Bruce Finley Hunt was interviewed by Robert Shuster on March 22 and May 21, 1980 and October 16, 2002 in Abington, PA and...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, newspaper clippings, a book manuscript, a film script, tapes of sermons and speeches, and other items which describe Muntz's early career as director of the Winona Lake Bible Conference, the early development of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association and the criticism it received, the careers of Billy Sunday and other evangelists. There are also several sermons on Christian prophecy and evangelism to the Jewish people. Topics covered include information on Palmer's career as...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, minutes, reports, manuals, and other records that have to do with Troutman's career in Christian work among university students, first with Inter-Varsity in the United States and Australia and then with Latin America Mission. This collection also contains a great deal of information on evangelical Christianity in the United States, Australia and Latin America; Troutman's letters from his service in the Pacific in World War II; and reports and other information relative to the...
Identifier: CN 115
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Raymond Leroy Elliott (1924-2008), Wycliffe Bible translator working among the Ixil Indian tribe in Guatemala. Interview topics include educational work and life in Wheaton, translation activities, missionary training, mission responsibilities, and political, social, and cultural events in Central America. The time period covered by the interviews is roughly 1824-1980.Raymond Elliott was interviewed by Chris Matthews, a Wheaton College graduate student,...
Identifier: CN 116
Scope and Contents Oral History interviews conducted with Helen Ruth Belcher Elliot (1927-2012), missionary with Wycliffe Bible Translators to the Ixil Indian tribe in Guatemala. Topics include Wheaton College during the 1950s, field experiences, Guatemalan culture and religion, and family activities. Topics covered in the interview include: Elliott's childhood, marriage and early family life, education at Wheaton College (including courses, academic and social life), decision to become a missionary with...
Identifier: CN 122
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Gladys Marie Fleckles (1946-2006) in which she describes her short term missionary experience with OMF in Japan. Other topics include her graduate work at Wheaton, undergraduate study at John Brown University, and work in the admissions department of Wheaton Graduate School. The time period covered by the interview is roughly 1946-1980.Gladys Fleckles was interviewed by Mr. John Svadbik twice in May 1980. The time period covered by the interviews is...
Identifier: CN 140
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Everett Mitchell (1898-1990) who as a teenager sang invitation songs at Billy Sunday evangelistic campaigns. Other topics discussed include: Mitchell's background, music and radio career, musical training, Billy and Helen Sunday, evangelistic work in Chicago, Gipsy Smith, Homer Rodeheaver, other evangelists, career as a war correspondent during the Korean War, religious use of radio, evangelistic rallies and crusade music. The time period covered by the intervew is...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, minutes, audio tapes, clippings, photographs, maps, posters, etc., related to EFMA Administration and its service to its member missions.Includes documentation of persecution of Protestants in Roman Catholic Colombia, Italy and Spain; efforts to broaden American awareness of conditions; and attempts to apply pressure through the US State Dept. Persons prominently featured include EFMA's Executive Directors Clyde Taylor, Wade Coggins, and Paul McKaughan. ...
Scope and Contents Dossiers and correspondence, photographs, newspapers, general correspondence, minutes, mailing lists, personnel files, research files used and compiled by Short Term Abroad.
Dossiers are for those placed in short-term mission assignments. General files document Short Term Abroad administration, including data that was used by the International Congress on World Evangelization, 1974. Research project LAYMEN ABROAD IN CHRISTIAN MISSION is also included.
Dossiers are for those placed in short-term mission assignments. General files document Short Term Abroad administration, including data that was used by the International Congress on World Evangelization, 1974. Research project LAYMEN ABROAD IN CHRISTIAN MISSION is also included.
Identifier: CN 186
Scope and Contents Two oral history interviews, manuscript material, photographs, and memorabilia relatingn to Marion Douglas Hursh's work with Sudan Interior Mission's Kano Eye Hospital, Kano in Nigeria from 1942-1962. Topics covered concern Hursh's education and work as a medical missionary at the Sudan Interior Mission's Kano Eye Hospital in Kano, Nigeria, as well as various aspects of church life and mission activity in Nigeria. Events described in the interviews cover the time period from 1904 to 1982.
Identifier: CN 190
Scope and Contents Oral History interviews with Alan Travers in which he discuess his work with Trans World Radio from 1959 to 1981, and the use of radio in missionary work. Topics discussed include: the history of TWR; technical and administrative details and policy of the organization; it's broadcasting and programming philosophy, finances, effectiveness and TWR's founder, Paul Freed; the locations of its stations throughout the world; how the staff members function in the stations and relate to the countries...
Scope and Contents Legal documents, reports, linguistic materials, correspondence, publications, organizational documents of SAM, chiefly 1921-1955.Materials document the mission's beginning as the Inland South America Missionary Union. In-depth reports cover all aspects of mission activities including missionary life and descriptions of their encounters with and observations of Indian tribes, methods of evangelizing, use of linguistic materials relating to Indian languages, personnel policies, social...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, minutes, manuscripts, photographs, phonograph records, and other materials relating to Eugene R. Bertermann's involvement in religious broadcasting, particularly in regard to his responsibilities as president and one of the board of directors of the National Religious Broadcasters; executive director and board member of Far East Broadcasting Company; and one of the planners of the ecumenical evangelistic effort known as Key '73.Materials particularly focus on...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, newsletters, minutes of meetings, correspondence course, photos, registers, address lists, and account books, and other materials related to the work of the WBSF, which included publishing and distribution of Bible studies for use around the world in prisons, hospitals, and leper colonies, and for use of missionaries and national Christian workers. [NOTE: In the Scope and Content description, the notation "folder 1-1" means box 1, folder 1.]Folder titles...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, minutes, directories, newsletters, brochures, photographs, book manuscripts, slides, photo albums, and other materials which document the history of the North American branch of the mission.Materials cover the origins of the mission's North American branch; its church planting, evangelistic, medical, educational, and literature work in China until the time of its expulsion in 1951; its reorganization from China Inland Mission into Overseas Missionary Fellowship; its...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, minutes, manuscripts, handbooks, directories, photographs, etc., relating to the mission's work of evangelism, church planting and development of national leadership in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America since its origin in 1950.Documents describe the founding and expansion of the mission, administrations of Dick Hillis (first president from 1951-1976, but also including files dating back to 1933 on his years as a missionary in China with China Inland...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, diaries, newsletters, scripts, catalogs, films, and other material related to the work of the Baptista Film Mission. This collection contains much information on the beginnings of the Protestant evangelical Christian film industry. Included are films featured are evangelical and fundamentalist figures like V. Raymond Edman, Billy Graham, Henry A. Ironside, Bob Jones Jr., Paul Rader, Oswald J. Smith, and Walter Wilson and nondenominational organizations. Subjects documented...
Identifier: CN 247
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Louis E. Knowlton in which he discusses his career in evangelistic work and radio technology in Brazil for the Brazilian Evangelistic Association, Inc. Topics discussed include Knowlton's early life, education, service as an Army chaplain's assistant, decision to go into technological ministry, work at WMBI and in Brazil, efforts as a street evangelist and beginnings of music studio, Brazilian churches, church-state relations, ethnic groups and cults, the use of...
Identifier: CN 250
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Robert Carlton Savage (1914-1987) in which he discusses his work as a missionary evangelist in Colombia (1942-1944) and his work in Ecuador for missionary radio station HCJB and Yourth for Christ (1944-1969). Topics discussed include: his call to mission work and service in Colombia and Ecuador with the Evangelical Alliance Mission (TEAM), radio station HCJB, Youth for Christ, and various other mission-related topics. The tim period covered by the interview is...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, memos, reports, newspaper clippings and other documents describing the founding and development of Prison Fellowship.Among the subjects covered in the files are the part played in the organization by Charles Colson, the realities of prison ministry, the conditions of prisons in the United States, relations between organizations involved in prison ministries, the testimonies of inmates, and the relationship between PFM and its constituents. Persons featured included...
Scope and Contents Memos; correspondence; book, article and editorial manuscripts; texts of speeches; legal papers; newspaper clippings; testimony transcripts; magazine articles; audio tapes; and photographs, all documenting many of the major phases of Colson's life, including his work as a political advisor to President Richard Nixon, his involvement in the Watergate scandal, his conversion to Christian faith that caused him to plead guilty to one of the charges against him, his imprisonment, and his life after...
Identifier: CN 287
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Margaret Rice Elliott Crossett in which she describes her childhood with her missionary parents in China, her education at Wheaton College, and missionary career with her husband, Vincent Crossett, in China and Taiwan with China Inland Mission/Overseas Missionary Fellowship (1929-1948, 1961-1973). Topics discussed include Crossett's childhood in China; description of Chinese indigenous worship practices and syncretism in Chinese religious culture; Crossett's...
Identifier: CN 288
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Vincent Leroy Crossett (1907-1999) in which he describes his education at Wheaton and Westminster Seminary, missionary work with China Inland Mission/Overseas Missionary Fellowship in China and Taiwan, and pastoral work in a local church in Hawaii. Topics discussed include Crossett's education at Wheaton College and Westminster Seminary; decision to join China Inland Mission; language school; evangelism methods; characteristics of the Chinese church; CIM's decision...
Identifier: CN 293
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Melvin David Suttie (1912-2006) in which he discusses his childhood, Christian growth, education at Wheaton College and Biblical Seminary in New York and Omaha Presbyterian Seminary, missionary work with China Inland Mission (1940-1950), work among university students, persecution, evangelistic work among the Chinese population and Nationalist troops, his wife Mary's work among women, their children, church and state relations in China, the impact of the...
Identifier: CN 311
Scope and Contents Water color paintings and oral history interviews with Charles J. Guth, relating to Guth’s missionary work in Africa with the Sudan Interior Mission. Topics covered by the interviews include: Guth’s education at Wheaton College, preparation for the mission field as a worker with Sudan Interior Mission, his life, work, and contacts as a missionary among the Koma and Maban people of the Sudan; the culture of these peoples; the effect of Sudan's independence on the church in the Sudan, linguistics...
Scope and Contents Collection 312 consists of letters, oral history interviews, articles, minutes of meetings, reports and other relating to Diane Hawkins' missionary service in Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia) as well as the tapes of an oral history interview conducted several years later. Among the topics covered are: TEAM's evangelistic, and educational work in Rhodesia; the lifestyle, music, and beliefs of Shona people; the civil war between white government and the black nationalist guerrillas which raged while...
Identifier: CN 313
Scope and Contents Correspondence, minutes, reports, manuscripts, photographs, audio tapes, clippings, etc., related to Van Kampen's responsibilities on the Board of Directors of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association as well as various board committees, the boards of BGEA subsidiaries or affiliated institutions (Billy Graham Benevolent Fund, Billy Graham Evangelistic Film Ministry, Inc., Billy Graham Evangelistic Trust, Billy Graham Foundation, Grason Company, World Evangelism and Christian Education Fund,...
- Wheaton College (Ill.) 27
- Graham, Billy, 26
- Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. 17
- Youth for Christ International. 10
- National Association of Evangelicals. 9
- Wheaton College (Ill.). 9
- Africa Inland Mission. 8
- China Inland Mission. 8
- Edman, V. Raymond (Victor Raymond), 1900-1967. 8
- Bright, Bill. 7
- HCJB (Radio station : Quito, Ecuador) 7
- International Fellowship of Evangelical Students. 7
- Jones, Bob, 7
- Latin America Mission. 7
- Rader, Paul, 7
- Sunday, Billy, 7
- World Council of Churches. 7
- World Evangelical Fellowship. 7
- Evangelical Alliance Mission. 6
- Jones, Clarence W. 6
- Moody Bible Institute. 6
- Sudan Interior Mission. 6
- Armerding, Hudson T. 5
- Chicago Gospel Tabernacle (Ill.) 5
- Evangelical Foreign Missions Association. 5
- Far East Broadcasting Company. 5
- Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship. 5
- Interdenominational Foreign Mission Association of North America. 5
- Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization. 5
- McIntire, Carl, 5
- Nixon, Richard M. 5
- Overseas Missionary Fellowship. 5
- Schaeffer, Francis A. 5
- Taylor, Clyde W. 5
- Troutman, Charles Henry, 5
- Woods, C. Stacey, 5
- Billy Graham Center. 4
- Blanchard, Charles A. 4
- Buswell, J. Oliver. 4
- Campus Crusade for Christ International. 4
- ELWA (Radio station : Monrovia, Liberia) 4
- Evangelical Literature Overseas. 4
- Ford, Leighton. 4
- Fuller, Charles Edward, 4
- Henry, Carl F. H. 4
- Howard, David M. 4
- International Christian Broadcasters. 4
- Islam 4
- Navigators. 4
- Padilla, C. Rene. 4
- Perkins, John, 4
- Rodeheaver, Homer A. 4
- Tenney, Merrill C. (Merrill Chapin), 1904-1985 4
- Wycliffe Bible Translators. 4
- Africa Inland Church. 3
- Bertermann, Eugene R. 3
- Bowman, Robert H. 3
- Bryan, William Jennings. 3
- Christian and Missionary Alliance 3
- Coggins, Wade T. 3
- Colson, Charles W. 3
- Committee to Assist Missionary Education Overseas. 3
- Crossett, Margaret E. 3
- Crossett, Vincent L. 3
- Dain, Arthur John, 3
- Elliot, Jim, 3
- Evangelism-in-Depth. 3
- Freed, Paul E. 3
- Hammontree, Homer. 3
- Hatfield, Mark O., 3
- Hoste, Dixon Edward. 3
- Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship of Canada. 3
- Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship of the United States of America. 3
- Little, Paul E. 3
- Machen, J. Gresham 3
- Missions Advanced Research and Communications Center. 3
- Moody Memorial Church (Chicago, Ill.) 3
- National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. 3
- National Religious Broadcasters (U.S.) 3
- Prison Fellowship. 3
- Skinner, Tom, 3
- Smith, Gipsy, 3
- Smith, Oswald J. 3
- Straw, Darien A. 3
- Sunday, Helen Amelia Thompson, 3
- Torrey, R. A. 3
- Trans World Radio. 3
- World Wide Pictures, Inc. 3
- Ackley, B. D. 2
- Anderson, Helen. 2
- Anderson, Ian Rankin. 2
- Anderson, John Bayard, 2
- Armstrong, Ben. 2
- Asher, Virginia Healey, 2
- Assemblies of God. 2
- Association of Church Missions Committees. 2
- Association of Evangelicals of Africa and Madagascar. 2
- Barrows, Cliff. 2
- Bayly, Joseph. 2
- Biederwolf, William E. 2 ∧ less