Showing Collections: 101 - 150 of 189
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Suzanne Elizabeth Griggins (T3-T4) in which she describes her work as a lawyer at the Mendenhall Ministries Law Office, including examples of cases. Other topics discussed include: Griggins’ conversion and spiritual growth; political, legal, educational, racial and social conditions in rural Mississippi; voter registration; pastor Artis Fletcher; the Ku Klux Klan; and the church's response to injustice. The collection also includes an orientation session (T1-T2) that...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, personnel files, legal documents, financial files, scrapbooks, almost 3,000 photographs.
Topics documented include the creation and activity of the mission work in Burma, China, India, Pakistan, and Japan, its work among orphans and women.
Topics documented include the creation and activity of the mission work in Burma, China, India, Pakistan, and Japan, its work among orphans and women.
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Itchaya Sitterley in which she describes her family, life in Thailand, education, career in television and radio, conversion, the evangelistic use of folk drama, the Thai church and comparisons between it and the American church, and Buddhism. Other topics discussed include Sitterley's work with the Chrisitan Communicatins Institute; her marriage; main denominations and seminaries in Thailand; and education at Wheaton College; competition among churches in Thailand;...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Charles H. Dawson (1916-2000) in which he describes his family background; conversion; involvement in street preaching; jail ministry and other work in the Camden area; involvement in the work of the Afro-American Missionary Crusade; and philosophy of Christian work. Other topics discussed include Dawson's training at the New Jersey Bible School; street preaching; Montrose Waite; Dawson's trips to Africa from the 1960s through the 1980s; training African evangelists;...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and transcripts with William M. Miller in which he describes his education at Princeton, Christian faith, and work as a Presbyterian missionary to Iran from 1919 to 1962. Besides descriptions of his evangelistic, pastoral, and educational work, he also describes many aspects of Iranian and Islamic society. Most of the transcripts are of interviews done for the Presbyterian Historical Society.[NOTE: In the Scope and Content description,...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Catherine Saavedra Velasco in which she discusses her life and ministry in the Philippines, including her childhood, education, and work as a Bible school teacher. Other topics covered include theological education and evangelism in the Philippines; work with "Here's Life Philippines," sponsored by Campus Crusade for Christ; the Christian and Missionary Alliance Church; Filipino culture; Muslim and Catholic communities in the Philippines; Ebenezer Bible College; and...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and manuscript, relating to the ministry of Janet Kuhns, missionary among the Dayak people in West Kalimantan, Indonesia under the auspices of the Christian and Missionary Alliance (CM&A).[NOTE: In the Scope and Content description, the notation "Folder 1-1" means box 1, Folder 1.]Series: Audio TapesThree oral history interviews with Janet Kuhns in which she...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Dorothy Jane Mainhood in which she describes her childhood, conversion, spiritual growth, education at Wheaton College, call to be a missionary, and work in Thailand for Overseas Missionary Fellowship. Other topics discussed include Mainhood’s medical training, language study in Thailand, Thai people and culture, regional differences in Thailand, the Buddhist and Muslim communities in Thailand, religious syncretism, church-state relations, characteristics of...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Ruth Winifred Temple Adeney (1912-1911) in which she describes her youth; spiritual growth; education at Northwestern Schools; call to missionary work with China Inland Mission; her missionary experience; her husband, David Adeney; her work with with China Inland Mission in rural areas of Henan Province (1934-1941); and her husband's work with university students in Nanking (1946-1948) and Shanghai (1949- 1950). Other topics discussed include the impact of war and...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Perry Clark Straw, an executive of the Moody Radio Network. Topics covered include Straw's childhood in the northeastern United States, his parent's work in starting and administering Baptist youth camps, memories of Percy Crawford and Jack Wyrtzen, his education at Southeastern Bible College and Moody Bible Institute, his early work in radio, discussion of Christian youth camps, descriptions of Percy Crawford, Jack Wyrtzen, WMBI, and the Chicago Gospel Tabernacle's...
Scope and Contents Clippings, photographs, cards, sermons, handbooks, oral history interviews and other records mainly relating to Consuella York's ministry as a chaplain at the Cook County Jail, but also describing her childhood growing up on the south side of Chicago, her conversion, religious education, and work as a pastor.The materials in this collection consist of miscellaneous items from Rev. York's life, mostly relating to her prison ministry. They include newspaper and magazine clippings,...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Ingrid Hult Trobisch (1926-2007) in which she describes her childhood in Tanzania as the daughter of missionaries and her own missionary service in Africa with husband Walter Trobisch. Other topics discussed include: first impressions of Africa, especially French Cameroon; observations about the role of women in Africa; African views of marriage and gender roles; medical care in Africa; the Christian church in Cameroon; the Muslim population in Cameroon; relationship...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Karl G. Dortzbach in which he describes his childhood and youth, influence of his family, education at Wheaton College and Westminster Theological Seminary, and missionary experience in Ethiopia (short term with the Orthodox Presbyterian Church) and in Kenya. Subjects covered include missiology, conversion, raising children on the mission field, marital relationships on the mission field, church life in a Nairobi congregation, proliferation of parachurch groups and...
Scope and Contents Audio recordings, including an oral history interview, diary, and several letters, relating to the career and ministry of Debbie Dortzbach, missionary to Kenya and Eritrea with the Orthodox Presbyterian Church and later the Reformed Presbyterian Church from 1973 to 1988.Series: Audio TapesOne oral history interview with Debbie Dortzbach in which she describes her describes her childhood, education at Wheaton College, and missionary work in...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Rosanna Formenak in which she discusses her family background; conversion; education at Nyack College and Columbia University in nursing; experiences as a missionary in Gabon with the Christian and Missionary Alliance; youth work, relationship between church and state in Gabon; medical work; and the strengths and weaknesses of the church in Gabon. Other topics discussed include the influence of Word of Life and Youth for Christ on Formenak’s spiritual growth,...
Scope and Contents Collection of letters written primarily by Robert Holmes and his wife, Frances (Frannie) to their families in the United States, while they served as missionaries with the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in Sri Lanka from 1947 to 1960. A few of the letters are from the children, Bobby and Carol Lou, to their grandparents, and there are a few letters sent to the Holmes family. (The originals were retained by the donor.) The letters date from 1947 to 1960, and were mostly...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, photographs, negatives, and clippings relating to the linguistic and missionary work of David and Dorothy Thomas in the Philippines, Vietnam (especially with the Chrau tribe), Cambodia, and Thailand with Wycliffe Bible Translators from 1954-1975. The bulk of the content consists of David and Dorothy's letters to his mother, Ruth, who lived in Wheaton, IL. Topics covered in the correspondence include information on the Thomas family, missionary work in the Philippines, and...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, prayer letters, correspondence, newspaper clippings, and articles relating to the ministry of Bonnie G. Stuckless and her husband Donald Stuckless, missionaries in Colombia, Panama, and Spain with the Assemblies of God from 1970 to 1992.[NOTE: In the Scope and Content description, the notation "folder 2-5" means box 2, folder 5.]Series: Audio TapesTwo oral history...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews and a manuscript, relating to the ministry of Hester Hartzell Withey, missionary with WEC International in China and India from 1940-1985.Series: Audio TapesOral history interviews with Hester Withey in which she describes her parents’ and grandparents’ missionary service in Angola, her childhood in Africa and the U.S., education in South Africa, conversion, medical training, missionary work for WEC International among...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Ruth Lillian Maxwell in which she talks about her family background, including her grandfather, L.E. Maxwell, founder of Prairie Bible Institute, and her parents, missionaries with Sudan Interior Mission (SIM) in Nigeria; Nigerian village life; experiences at boarding school; conversion to Christianity; spiritual development; education in Canada at Prairie Bible Institute; joining SIM; missions work in Liberia teaching the Bible and leading study groups for women....
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Americo Saavedra,a Peruvian-born missionary working with HCJB in Ecuador, in which he describes his childhood, family, conversion, Catholicism in Peru and Ecuador, radio station HCJB and its ministry, Quito, Ecuador, his decision to be a missionary, employment with Wycliffe Bible Translators in Peru. Other topics include his education at Moody Bible Institute, Christian education in Ecuador, informal education, Summer Institute of Linguistics, the state of the...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview and prayer letters relating to the ministry of Helen Elizabeth Berry, missionary with the Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society in Taiwan from 1966-1990.Series: Audio TapesOral history interview with Helen E. Berry in which she describes her youth, family, conversion, call to be a missionary, education at Wheaton College, missionary work with the Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society in Taiwan, church...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with T. Michael Flowers (1920-2015) in which he describes growing up in the Bahamas, the influence on his life of W. H. Farrington, his conversion, his evangelistic work in the Bahamas, his education in Scotland, a brief description of Billy Graham in Scotland in 1946, and the beginning of his evangelistic work in the United States. The second interview covers Flowers' ministry in Canada, Whitfield and B. M. Nottage, the Plymouth Brethren church and its church planting,...
Identifier: CN 434
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, articles, brochures, booklets, clippings, correspondence, directories, financial records, manuals, minutes, publications, reports, and other materials documenting Jack Frizen's life and ministry. Material mainly describes Frizen’s family life, work with G.I. Gospel Hour, director of Far East Gospel Crusade (now SEND International), executive director of International Foreign Mission Association (IFMA), director of Tyndale House Foundation, trustee of the Henry and...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, newsletters, articles, negatives, and photographs relating to the missionary service of Isobel and John Kuhn, primarily among the Lisu people in China and Thailand with Overseas Missionary Fellowship from 1928 to 1954. The topics discussed in the letters include travel in China, missions work, their marriage, birth of daughter and son, cultural differences, advance of communists into the Lisu area, biographical sketches of co-workers Mary Baldock, Frances Bailey, Lilian Hamer,...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Inge Herman Rydland in which he describes his family's Lutheran evangelistic work in Norway; his own call to become a missionary; his and his wife's departure to Ethiopia as workers of the Swedish Evangelical Mission in 1977; his work in Ethiopia as a teacher and as a community development work. Other topics discussed include: the work of the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Meaken Yesus; church state relations; effect of the Ethiopian political situation on the...
Identifier: CN 442
Scope and Contents Oral history interview and one folder relating to the ministry of Philip R. Foxwell with the Independent Board for Presbyterian Foreign Missions and later World Presbyterian Missions.Series: Audio TapesOral history interview with Philip R. Foxwell in which he describes his youth, conversion, magician career, education at Wheaton College, decision to become a missionary, preparation and orientation for missionary work in Japan with the...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Helen Elizabeth Evans in which she decsribes her family background; spiritual development; education at Wheaton College; ministry in rural Vermont with the New England Fellowship; the influence of her aunt, Elizabeth Evans; her missionary work in Vietnam and Indonesia with the Christian and Missionary Alliance; and work among Vietnamese in Charlotte, North Carolina. Evans' work in Vietnam was particularly among the Dega and other tribal groups often classified as...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Scott Jeffrey Harbert in which he discusses his family, growing up, meeting his father as an adult, influences on his childhood and adolescence, contacts with Shintoism in Japan, problem with marijuana, conversion to Christianity and influence of Richard Foster, college education and participation in Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, work as a staff member at the IVCF headquarters, marriage to Barbara Gration, the development of Concerts of Prayer, short-term...
Scope and Contents Memoirs, newsletters, correspondence, diary, photos, film, poems, newspaper clippings and other items that relate to the Stam family, their Christian faith, Star of Hope Mission and the missions and evangelism work of various family members, especially John and Betty Stam who were killed in China by Chinese Communist soldiers in 1934. [Note: The notation "Folder 2-1" means "Box 2, Folder 1.]This collection was created by the...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, reports, minutes of meetings, reference files, clippings, newsletters and other material related to the work of the Foundation (also known as International Christian leadership) which involved developing small group prayer fellowships, especially among government, business and academic leaders.There is a great deal of information on the United States and other countries. Also documented is the group's involvement in various community development, patriotic, and...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Phyllis Evelyn Taylor in which she discusses her childhood and conversion to Christianity; education at Wheaton College; her experiences as a Christian and Missionary Alliance teacher and evangelist among the Bantu people in the Belgian Congo from 1952-1966; her work in Taiwan from 1968 as an independent missionary; and teaching English as a means of evangelism. Other topics discussed include attending Nyack Missionary Training Institute; memories of the 1950...
Identifier: CN 464
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Eileen J. Kuhn in which she describes her family background; her conversion to Christianity; her medical training as a nurse; life at Moody Bible Institute in the late 1940s; China Inland Mission at about the same time; her call to foreign missions; her work at the CIM retirement home in Toronto; descriptions of John and Isobel Kuhn; work among the Lisu people in Thailand and Burma; translation of the Bible into the Lisu language; contacts with a former Kuomintang...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Merry Dalton Long (1925-2010) in which she describes her childhood; education at Wheaton College; marriage; missionary work in the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and Brazil; the 1960 Congo Rebellion; raising and educating children on the mission field. Other topics discussed include: Long’s medical training as a nurse during WWII; impressions of Africa; medical care available on the mission field; observations about Congolese animism; missionary...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Elizabeth Quackenbush Stough (1913-2009) in which she discusses her parents, childhood, education, conversion, attendance at Moody Bible Institute, call to be a missionary, joining Africa Inland Mission, travel to Africa, work in French Equatorial Africa, evangelistic field trips, her husband Paul Stough, her work among women in the Belgian Congo, the growth of the Africa Inland Church, the independence of the Congo, the Congolese civil war and Simba uprising, the...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Sadie Custer (1911-2007) in which she discusses her childhood, conversion, education at Moody Bible Institute, joining the China Inland Mission, arrival in China in 1936, the Chinese language, work in Shensi province, Bible teaching, transition from missionary to Chinese leadership, the Three Self Movement, the Communist revolution in China and its effect on missions, the Sino-Japanese Conflict, work in Malaysia among Chinese, living in an area in Malaysia contested...
Scope and Contents Oral historyinterviews with Clayton L. Berg, known as "Mike," former missionary, educator and president of Latin America Mission. Topics discussed include Berg's youth, family, conversion, education (including Wheaton Grad School), youth pastorate at Western Springs church, marriage and family, language training at Spanish Language Institute, Hogar Biblico, teaching and administration at the Latin America Biblical Seminary iin Costa Rica, administration of LAM's Education Division, training...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Jose E. Hernandez in which he discusses his conversion; mission work in Spain; ministry in the jails and prisons of Miami, Florida; jail conditions; the work of the South Florida Jail Ministries; the work of the Agape Women's Homes; church/state relations; emotional and organizational problems in Christian ministry. The time period covered by the interviews is 1952-1993.Jose Hernandez was interviewed by Paul Ericksen on January 13,1993 at the offices of...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Trent Sheppard in which he discusses the influence of his parents and the International Prayer Ministry, the development of his own Christian faith, the influence on him of Loren Cunningham, Corrie ten Boom, and J. Edwin Orr, among others; the purpose and methods of Youth with a Mission (YWAM); his activities in England with The Fellowship, a Christian community; and his hopes for a worldwide Christian renewal movement among young people. The time period covered by...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Margaret L. Clapper (1912-2005), missionary with Africa Inland Mission in Belgian Congo/Zaire from 1939-1980. Topics covered in two sessions include her youth, conversion, Bible school education at Moody Bible Institute, missionary work in central Africa, Belgian administration of the Congo, work among pygmies, Zaire politics and government, independence of the country in 1960 and the Simba rebellion, transition from mission to national authority, singleness, role...
Scope and Contents Correspondence, diaries, articles, clippings, oral history interviews, photograph albums, photographs, prayer letters, radio broadcasts, and slides, describing Laura Isabelle “Belle” Barr's missionary work among the Lugbara people of northeast Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo) and the West Nile District of Uganda with Africa Inland Mission (AIM) from 1944-1981.[Note: In the Scope & Content section, the notation “folder 2-5" means “Box 2,...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Francis Sunderaraj in which he describes committing his life to Christ as a teenager in India; the development of his faith; the institutions and leadership of Evangelical Protestantism in India; Methodist churches in India and Malaysia; Sunderaraj's education at the Union Biblical Seminary in Yeotmal, India, Princeton Seminary, and Wheaton College; the development of the Evangelical Fellowship of India. The time period covered by the interviews is ca. 1942-1993....
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Stella Kasirye in which she describes her childhood in Uganda; her conversion to Christian faith while at school; her involvement in programs to reach street children; her efforts to develop programs of AIDS education and care among college students and the country at large, and observations on the church in Uganda and missionary efforts there. The time period covered by the interviews is 1965 to 1993.Stella Kasirye was interviewed by Robert Shuster in...
Scope and Contents Diaries, photographs, correspondence, and a scrapbook relating to Mabel Easton Buyse’s missionary service with Africa Inland Mission among the Dungu and Bafuka people groups in Belgian Congo (later, Zaire) before her marriage and later service in Aru and Kasengu, Belgian Congo; Goli, Uganda; and Opari, Sudan. Buyse was involved with setting up, operating, and teaching in schools in each place she worked. The scrapbook deals with the 1941 sinking of the Zamzam, in which her brother-in-law,...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Beverly (Pannell) Yates in which she discusses her childhood in Michigan, family history, her brother (evangelist William Pannell), her conversion and spiritual growth, impact of B.M. Nottage on her life, work as a nurse, her ministry among women, Ruth Bentley, Melvin Banks, the black church in Chicago, the development of the Chicagoland Christian Women's Conference, and the Westside Holistic Center. The time period covered by the interviews is 1931-1994....
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Geraldine Julia (Hinote) Phillips (19132-2000) in which she describes her family background, conversion to Christianity after listening to Gypsy Smith on the radio; education at BIOLA and Columbia Bible College, work at the Rehoboth Mission in Kentucky from 1934-1939, joining Sudan Interior Mission (SIM), travel to Africa in 1943, and the beginning of her work among the Dinka people in southern Sudan. Other topics discussed include: Phillips work with the Rehoboth...
Scope and Contents Oral history interview with Barbara Lynn (Miner) Collins in which she describes her childhood; family's religious background; conversion to Christianity; spiritual development in college and young professional life; acceptance as a missionary by Africa Inland Mission (AIM); arrival on the mission field in Kenya; work among the Rendile and Kikuyu peoples; raising children on the mission field; development of women's program at Africa Inland Church Missionary College; work among women refugees in...
Identifier: CN 509
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Evelyn Mildred Camp (1915-1999), missionary work in the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo) with Africa Inland Mission (AIM) from 1944 to 1961. Topics discussed include Camp's experience as a child of missionaries, her missionary work in schools for boys and girls at Oicha and Blukwa AIM stations, her family's economic hardships, furloughs, the social life of missionary children, education at Rethy Academy, call to missionary work, training at Columbia...
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews, questionnaires, reports, and other materials relating to spontaneous revivals on Wheaton College campus in the twentieth century. There are restrictions on some material in this collection. The collection primarily documents the March 1995 revival at the College, largely through oral history interviews conducted during or shortly after the event; also included are thirteen follow-up interviews conducted two years after the revival....
Scope and Contents Oral history interviews with Joseph C. Aldrich and Terry Dirks, leaders of International Renewal Ministries, in which they describe their personal backgrounds and the origins, purpose, and impact of the prayer summits for pastors sponsored by IRM. They also both talked about the revival on the campus of Multnomah Bible School that occurred on April 14, 1995. The time period covered by the interviews is 1940 to 1995.Terry Dirks and Joseph Aldrich were interviewed by Bob Shuster on...
- Subject: Women X
- Billy Graham Center Archives 179
- Special Collections, Buswell Library 10
- Wheaton College (Ill.) 71
- Wheaton College (Ill.). 32
- China Inland Mission. 26
- Moody Bible Institute. 24
- Overseas Missionary Fellowship. 23
- Graham, Billy, 22
- Chung-kuo kuo min tang. 17
- Edman, V. Raymond (Victor Raymond), 1900-1967. 16
- Buswell, J. Oliver. 12
- Sudan Interior Mission. 12
- Christian and Missionary Alliance 11
- Moody Bible Institute 11
- Stam, Elisabeth Alden Scott, 11
- Wycliffe Bible Translators. 11
- Islam 10
- Stam, John Cornelius, 10
- Sunday, Billy, 10
- Africa Inland Mission. 9
- Christian and Missionary Alliance. 9
- Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. 8
- Evangelical Alliance Mission. 8
- Rader, Paul, 8
- HCJB (Radio station : Quito, Ecuador) 7
- Howard, David M. 7
- World Evangelical Fellowship. 7
- Youth for Christ International. 7
- Armerding, Hudson T. 6
- Campus Crusade for Christ International. 6
- Elliot, Jim, 6
- Evangelical Churches of West Africa. 6
- Kuhn, Isobel. 6
- McIntire, Carl, 6
- Torrey, R. A. 6
- World Council of Churches. 6
- Africa Inland Church. 5
- Africa Inland Mission, International. 5
- Blanchard, Charles A. 5
- Catholic Church 5
- Dow, Elsie Storrs, 1859-1944 5
- Jones, Bob, 5
- Kane, J. Herbert. 5
- National Association of Evangelicals. 5
- Pacific Garden Mission (Chicago, Ill.) 5
- Perkins, John, 5
- Presbyterian Church in the U.S. 5
- Rodeheaver, Homer A. 5
- Schoerner, Katharine Dodd. 5
- Schoerner, Otto Frederick. 5
- Smith, Wilbur Moorehead, 5
- Straw, Darien A. 5
- Taylor, Clyde W. 5
- Taylor, James Hudson, 5
- Tenney, Merrill C. (Merrill Chapin), 1904-1985 5
- Wright, J. Elwin. 5
- Anderson, Helen. 4
- Anderson, Ian Rankin. 4
- Asher, Virginia Healey, 4
- Biederwolf, William E. 4
- Bingham, Rowland V., 4
- Bright, Bill. 4
- Chefoo School (Yen-t'ai shih, China) 4
- Chiang, Kai-shek. 4
- Chicago Gospel Tabernacle (Ill.) 4
- Christianity Today, Inc. 4
- Columbia Bible College (S.C.) 4
- Crossett, Margaret E. 4
- Fuller, Charles Edward, 4
- Glasser, Arthur F. 4
- Houghton, Frank, 4
- Kuhn, John Becker. 4
- Latin America Mission. 4
- LeBar, Lois E. 4
- McGavran, Donald A. 4
- Mixter, Russell Lowell, 4
- National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. 4
- Navigators. 4
- Ockenga, Harold John, 4
- Operation Mobilization. 4
- Rift Valley Academy (Kijabe, Kenya) 4
- Schaeffer, Francis A. 4
- Smith, Oswald J. 4
- Wyrtzen, Jack, 4
- American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. 3
- Assemblies of God 3
- Bell, L. Nelson 3
- Bible Institute of Los Angeles. 3
- Bible Institute of the Philippines (Valenzuela, Philippines) 3
- Carlson, Robert Dean. 3
- Central American Mission. 3
- Christian Service Brigade. 3
- Coggins, Wade T. 3
- Colson, Charles W. 3
- Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society. 3
- Crosby, Fanny, 3
- Crossett, Vincent L. 3
- Dain, Arthur John, 3
- Dallas Theological Seminary. 3
- Davis, Ralph T. 3
- Evangelical Fellowship of India. 3
- Far East Broadcasting Company. 3 ∧ less