Collection 209 Papers of Eugene R. Bertermann
Scope and Contents
Materials particularly focus on his responsibilities as: president and one of the board of directors of National Religious Broadcasters; executive director and board member of Far East Broadcasting Company; and one of the planners of the ecumentical nationwide evangelistic effort known as Key '73. Persons featured include religious broadcasters like Theodore Epp, Oswald Hoffman, Clarence Jones, Stephen Olford, George Sweeting, Abe Van Der Puy, and Jack Wyrtzen; political figures like Presidents Eisenhower, Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan, Congressman John Anderson and Senator Mark Hatfield; religious figures like Ben Armstrong, Bill Bright, Paul Freed, Billy Graham, Carl Henry, Bob Jones Sr. and Thomas Zimmerman. Numerous religious organizations are represented in the records, most of them evangelical parachurch agencies. Subjects documented reflect issues of concern in fields of evangelism and broadcasting.
[NOTE: In the scope and content description, the notation "folder 1-1" means box 1, folder 1.]
The materials in this collection deal almost exclusively with the development of evangelical protestant radio and, to a much lesser extent, the television industry worldwide during the 1960s and 1970s. Bertermann's deep involvement in NRB and FEBC as well as his work with other organizations, such as International Christian Broadcasters and the World Association of Christian Communicators, resulted in his papers containing an abundance of material on the industry's problems, activities, goals, and leaders. Most of the collection consists of written documents, although there are also several photographs and a couple of phonograph records. Types of documents include correspondence, reports, minutes, blueprints, brochures, clippings, newsletters, and posters.
The files in this collection are arranged in five sections: Far East Broadcasting Company materials, National Religious Broadcasters materials, ephemera from various specific broadcasters organizations or radio/television programs, ephemera on topics related in some way to broadcasting, and files of the Mass Media Committee of the nationwide evangelism effort known as Key '73. The first two groups are in chronological order, the files of each calendar year together. Within each year, the different types of records, such as correspondence or reports, are kept together. The next two files, which apparently were kept for reference, are arranged alphabetically by folder title, which was assigned by Bertermann. The basic arrangement of this collection is that of Bertermann, although the folder titles in the FEBC and the NRB sections were assigned by the archivist. The materials within each folder are in roughly chronological order, but no effort has been made to put each item in its place.
A. Far East Broadcasting Company Materials
Most of the records in this section are related in some way to the meetings of the board of directors of FEBC. Either they are the agenda and minutes of such meetings or they are reports on some phase of FEBC activity which were given to board members, even if the reports were not specifically written for board meetings. One special type of item which should be mentioned is the reports of the field directors of FEBC's facilities around the world. These reports were prepared for the annual field director meetings and contain a good yearly summary of the organization's activities. The general subjects covered include: the management and improvement of broadcast facilities in Singapore, India, Hong Kong, Okinawa, Japan, the Seychelles, Indonesia, the Philippines, Korea, and the United States; surveys of audience response to broadcasts to Communist countries; relations of FEBC with the governments of the countries where it has facilities, including the United States government; personnel policies; fund raising; budget and finance management; relations with other organizations doing similar work; the exploration of possible sites for new transmitting stations; public relations; and the relationship between the United States corporation and indigenous, self-governing Far East Broadcasting corporations in other countries.
The agenda, minutes, and annual reports thoroughly cover all aspects of FEBC's work each year and their plans for the future. Also of interest for day-to-day management are the minutes of the Executive Council (folder 6-7), which consisted of the president, executive director, and board-appointed division heads. It made operational decisions between board meetings. Anyone interested in FEBC's work in the Philippines, for example, can find sufficient information by reading the annual report by the Philippines field director. Thus, although below are listed some documents of special interest from the files for special years, the researcher interested in a particular country or topic should remember to consult the "ordinary" records for each year to find all of the available information.
1961 - Report by Bertermann on how to increase and improve FEBC's fundraising program (folder 1-1).
1963 - Discussion of plans to build a television broadcasting station in Okinawa (folder 1-2).
1964 - William Roberts report on the possibility of an FEBC station in Europe; a copy of the Corporation's articles of incorporation (folder 1-4).
1967 - Report from Robert Bowman on FEBC's relations with other missions, a listing by Bertermann of all of FEBC's physical facilities, paper on the possibility of beginning a radio station in the Seychelles, and a report on the development of Christian radio and TV in the Caribbean area (folder 1-7).
1968 - Statements on how FEBC should begin a data processing system, a report on the characteristics of the radio audience in Thailand (folder 1-8).
1970 - Application for grants to various foundations, report on a trip by David Wilkinson to South Korea to explore the possibility of a joint venture with the Evangelical Alliance Mission to set up a radio station. Wilkinson describes his meetings with several religious and political figures including Billy Kim, Ralph Pace, and Keesun Cho.
1971 - Letters from Wilkinson about the response in Japan to FEBC's programs, a long report from India about the organization's activities and prospects (folder 2-2). A systems analysis report by Paul McClendon on all phases of FEBC-Philippines operations. Includes notes from interviews with staff (folder 2-4).
1972 - A survey of the characteristics of the Vietnamese radio audience, agreements between the United States FEBC and the Far East Broadcasting associates of London transferring responsibility for the Indian work to London (folder 2-8). A letter from Billy Kim about relations with the Korean CIA and other government agencies on the factors influencing that government's support of FEBC's work, correspondence with legislators Karl Mundt, Albert Quie, John B. Anderson, Carl T. Curtis, Mark Hatfield, Stuart Symington, Durward G. Hall, Warren Magnusson, John Sparkman, and Vance Hartke attempting to win their support of FEBC's work in Korea (folder 2-5); materials from the 1970 North American Congress of Chinese Evangelicals (folder 2-6).
1976 - Transcript of a discussion of Robert Bowman, E. Bressenden, and Jack Koziol about the situation of Christians in Russia; information from Michael Bordeaux on Keston College's work on Christianity and communism. Reports given at the European Broadcasting Consultation which was held to coordinate the activities of organizations broadcasting to Russia. Among the reports are ones on Soviet pentecostals, Bowman's impressions of the meeting, official church leadership in the USSR, notes from Underground Evangelism about what the meeting should cover (folders 3-8 and 3-12).
Also from 1976 are such items as a revised FEBC staff manual, information on a meeting with Korean evangelist Billy Kim (folder 3-9), translations of letters from listeners in Russia, and a report on a visit to Manila by Cliff Marshborn and Bud Jillson (folder 3-11).
1977 - Report on the church in Vietnam, groups broadcasting to mainland China, the organization's pension plan, the Tell Asia Conference (127 people from all over Asia attempting to coordinate the evangelism strategies of their organizations) (folder 4-2), FEBC's data processing needs (folder 4-7), the construction of a new headquarters building in La Mirada, California (folder 5-2).
1978 - Reports and information on the plans to celebrate FEBC's 30th Anniversary; the acquisition of Christian Literature Crusade; difficulties in the work of FEBC-Philippines and Bertermann's reaction; the conflict between Richard Wurmbrand of Jesus to the Communist World and L. Joe Bass and Stefan Bankou of Underground Evangelism; the agreement with Compassion, Inc., for the use of its property in Seoul by FEBC; the response of audiences in Mexico, Central America, Chile, Argentina, Guatemala, Brazil, Uruguay, and other parts of Latin America to FEBC's broadcasts; the need for Portuguese broadcasts to Brazil (folders 5-4 and 5-5); analysis of audience response to FEBC, groundbreaking for the new headquarters building in the United States (folder 5-6); the development of a film called Voices in the Night about FEBC's work and the response of an audience sample (folder 5-3); a proposal on an integrated public relations and fund-raising campaign; a survey of the characteristics of the radio audience in Indonesia (folder 5-9).
1979 - Computer printout showing statistical breakdowns of FEBC's total broadcasts, such as the amount of broadcast time given to various languages and the programming carried by different FEBC stations (several board books contain similar printouts) (folder 6-1); memos on the move to add more Asians to the governing boards of the FEBC corporations; copies of letters from listeners in different parts of the world (folder 6-2).
1980 - Position reports about FEBC's work in various parts of the world, the characteristics of the audience there, strategy for reaching the audience, and plans for the future. Areas covered by reports include Japan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Singapore, Burma, and Korea (folder 6-9). Much of the correspondence in 1980-1981 is to or from executive director Ted Haney.
B. National Religious Broadcasters
As with the FEBC records, certain types of NRB records appear each year, such as the minutes of the board of directors and the correspondence, reports, and other documents relating to the annual convention. For each year there is also usually at least some of the papers delivered at the annual meeting, a list of members, a list of Protestant broadcasters in North America, and press releases from and about the convention. The files also include correspondence with other broadcaster associations, such as International Christian Broadcasters or the National Association of Broadcasters, about topics of common interest; letters from individuals involved in broadcasting about their activities and problems; and correspondence with officials of the federal government, particularly the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) about regulation of the airwaves. Thus, folder 7-5 contains information about NRB's participation in congressional hearings on scandals in the television industry. For several years, there are applications from individuals or organizations joining or renewing their membership in NRB. These applications are in roughly alphabetical order and contain some information, although not a great deal. In some cases, there is more information, such as the correspondence on the Voice of Healing's application (folder 7-5).
Subjects covered in the files include the problems and opportunities of religious broadcasting; the growing political influence of evangelical Protestants in politics and government; relations between various Protestant broadcasters and missions; censorship; planning of the annual convention to meet the needs of a wide and growing range of members; court cases involving NRB members; ethics of broadcasting; disagreements between fundamentalists, evangelicals, and pentecostals; the relationship of ICB to NRB and the work of ICB; and change in the structure of NRB.
On the early history of NRB, before the 1960s, there is surprisingly little information, even though Bertermann was one of the charter members. Folder 8-12 contains a copy of minutes from NRB meetings in 1945, and a letter from Bob Jones Sr. praising the fairness of the FCC. Folder 9-3 contains a copy of the 1944 Delaware incorporation certificate. Other than that, there is little. As mentioned above, minutes of the board, financial reports, and membership lists are in many files. In some cases, there are also memos stating NRB's goals and plans for the upcoming year (e.g., folder 7-13). A concern of many members was to create a permanent office for the full-time staff. Folders 7-2, 8-2, 8-8, and 10-16, among others, contain information on this topic. The office was finally set up in Morristown, New Jersey, and then a few years later moved to Pinebrook, New Jersey. Folders 8-2, 8-6, and 8-7 contain minutes, correspondence, and other records about the creation of the post of executive director to head the staff and the hiring of Benjamin Armstrong for the post. Another development in NRB reflected in this collection is the growth of regional chapters, which also held periodic meetings to discuss topics of interest (folders 8-6, 8-13 to 8-15, 9-5, 10-4, 10-5, and 11-7).
NRB had a close relationship with International Christian Broadcasters and Bertermann served on the boards of both groups. Folder 7-11 contains information on joint activities of the two groups. An interesting memo in 7-13 suggests ways of making ICB more truly international and less dominated by its United States membership. Other ICB records include directories of missionary radio and recording stations, a description of the radio audience in Arriba (folder 8-9), a copy of the organization's minutes and by-laws (folder 8-16), and reports on the International Communications Congress held in Tokyo (folder 10-14). Bertermann was similarly a member of the World Association for Christian Broadcasting (WACB), later the World Association for Christian Communications or WACC) and acted as liaison for NRB as well as the Lutheran Church. The WACC, unlike ICB, was not exclusively or even mainly made up of conservative Protestants.
Folders 9-9, 10-8, 10-14, and 11-14 consist mainly of correspondence about WACC's meetings, including material on the activities of Philip Potter, although folder 9-9 contains a copy of the Lutheran World Federation Broadcast Service's Mass Media Report and 11-14 contains other reports on the Service's activities. Folder 10-8 contains minutes of a regional meeting in Africa and reports of studies on the effect of television and radio worldwide.
There are numerous evidences in the documents of NRB's influence on and interaction with national politics. Most years contain invitations to senators, representatives, and other leaders to the congressional prayer breakfasts which were an important part of the meetings. Letters to and from politicians on issues affecting religious broadcasting are in several folders. Copies of citations given to politicians are in various folders, such as the ones to Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon in folder 7-4. Folders 12-2, 13-6, and 13-10 contain material on the involvement of Presidents Ford, Carter, and Reagan in the annual conventions. An interesting memo by right-wing politician and lawyer John Conlan to selected Christian leaders describes his feelings about the 1980 presidential race and suggests that evangelicals support Reagan (folder 13-1). The same folder contains discussion of a plan for NRB to move its headquarters to Washington.
Some other material of interest is described below year by year. It should be noted that discussions of religious broadcasting in general and particular topics of interest can be found in the folders labeled "Papers Given at the Annual Convention."
1963 - List of Christian radio stations and stations overseas controlled by Christians; summary of meeting with representatives of the NRB, memo on ways to improve quality of religious radio programs; memo on way to improve relationship between radio producers and station management (folder 7-11).
1964 - Guidelines on broadcasting's organizational, financial, and operational ethics; note from Billy Graham asking for advice on upcoming talk to NRB (folder 7-13).
1965 - Plans for a World Day of Prayer (folder 8-2), questionnaires from membership describing their suggestions for the 1966 convention (folder 8-5).
1966 - Sample letter from a Christian radio station to the producer of its programming outlining what they can and cannot say on the air; letter from Roger Legge on the future of frequency broadcasting (folders 8-6 and 8-7).
1967 - Letter from the Pacific Broadcasting Association about the work of Akira Hatori; a paper on the history of religious broadcasting in the U.S. by William Fore (folder 8-12).
1968 - Correspondence about the orthodoxy of the Seventh Day Adventist church relative to their admission to NRB; fund-raising letters to Christian organizations; copies of letters by Carl McIntyre replying to attacks on his radio work (folders 9-2 and 9-3); reactions to a talk by State Department official William McBundy on U.S. policy in Vietnam (folder 9-12).
1971 - Correspondence describing various radio ministries including Campus Crusade (Bill Bright), the Radio and Television Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention (Clarence Duncan), Trans-World Radio (Paul Freed and Horst Marquardt), and TransWorld Mission (John Olson) (folders 11-9 to 11-11). A letter from B. Sam Hart describing ways of reaching the black radio audience (folder 11-6).
1974 - An attack on Christianity Today's reporter, Ed Plowman, by Underground Evangelism because of his article on that organization; correspondence about Bertermann's stepping down as NRB president (folder 12-1).
1976 - Records of the joint NRB-NAE meeting.
1977 - Reports on Jack Anderson's criticism of John Broger of the Pentagon for allegedly making use of the department's resources for the NAE; list of NRB members involved in television broadcasting (folder 12-10).
1978 - Correspondence, memos, and motions filed by NRB relative to a case before the Supreme Court on the right of the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers to license music to radio stations; copy of a letter from John Conlon to George Wilson on the best way to insure public financial accountability by large evangelistic organizations (folder 12-12).
1979 - Letter criticizing NRB's use of secular entertainers and youth-oriented speakers, with the organization's response; copies of the journal of the Asian Christian Communications Fellowship; information on PTL Club's hearing before the FCC and NRB's participation in the suit (folder 12-14); report on the work of the Communication Commission of the World Evangelical Fellowship (folder 13-1); a study of the use of mass media in Asia; the television plan of the United Methodist Church (folder 13-2).
1980 - Correspondence about the suing of various Christian radio stations by Bill Gaither for using his music without permission; report by Armstrong on religious radio and TV stations in the U.S.; analysis of the 1980 NRB convention; a policy manual for NRB staff (folder 13-7).
1981 - Information on the plans for President Reagan's inauguration.
C. Program/Organization Files
These files contain newsletters, brochures, and in some cases correspondence or reports from television and radio programs and from organizations connected with broadcasting. The material is largely undated but generally appears to fall between the years 1960 to 1975. Most of the information is rather general. In some cases, like the World Association for Christian Broadcasting (folder 15-2) or the Broadcasting and Film Commission of the National Council of Churches (folder 14-5), the files contain newsletters, annual reports, minutes, and policy statements. The Radio Voice of the Gospel contains notes from a 1965 conference at which audience reactions were discussed. Also in the folder is a survey of medium wave-short wave coverage of Africa, the Near East, and India (folder 14-30). The file for World Vision includes a 1969 employee manual (folder 15-5). The titles for these folders were taken from Bertermann's original folders. In some cases, the main speaker of a particular program or the location of a station is in parentheses. This also comes from Bertermann's files.
D. Reference Files
The files in this section contain slippings, brochures, newsletters, and similar infsormation on topics related in some way to religious broadcasting. The dates of this material are similar to the dates covered by the Program/Organization files. Besides topics, there are a few files on organziations such as Campus Crusade (folder 16-10), Federal Communications Commission (folder 16-33), Lutheran Literature Society of China (folder 17-13), The Lutheran Voice (folder 17-14), The Missions Advanced Research and Communications Center (folder 17-15), the National Association of Broadcasters (folder 17-24), the National Association of Evangelicals (folder 17-25), the National Catholic Office for Radio and Television (folder 17-26) and WRUL (folder 18-32). These were left in this section, instead of being put with the Program/Orientation file since this is where Bertermann put them.
E. Key '73
These files are arranged in alphabetic order by title. The files labeled "Committee Materials" are also in chronological order. The original arrangement of the material was maintained, although the archivist supplied the folder titles. The folders contain minutes of meetings, newsletters, clippings, brochures, scripts, handbooks, and correspondence related to Key '73 Mass Media Committee, of which Bertermann was the chairperson, to encourage and coordinate use of radio and television by denominations and local churches participating in this joint evangelistic effort. Several of the folders contain criticism of the whole Key '73 effort by fundamentalist groups. The meetings of the Mass Media Committee are documented in the agenda books in folders 19-1 to 20-1. Correspondence and other records about activities between meetings are also in these folders. Ted Raedeke, executive director, is a frequent correspondent.
- Created: 1955-1981
Conditions Governing Access
Biographical or Historical Information
From 1929 to 1933 he attended Concordia College in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, graduating summo cum honore. At Concordia Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri, he received the Lutheran Laymen's League Scholarship and graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1937. During his seminary days, he was involved with answering the mail of the radio program "The Lutheran Hour" and assisted in editing the Walther League Messenger. He was ordained to the ministry of the Lutheran Church in 1940.
Bertermann went on to Washington University, St. Louis, graduating with the Master of Arts degree in 1938 and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1940. He was associated with the work of "The Lutheran Hour" from 1935, when the program was carried over two stations, until 1959, when the broadcast was heard in fifty-nine languages over 1,330 stations in the United States, Canada, and sixty-nine territories and foreign countries. He established Lutheran Hour broadcasting in Japan and Hong Kong and traveled to Germany, Central and South America, Australia, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe in the interests of the program.
From 1959 to 1967, he served as Executive Secretary of Lutheran Television of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod in St. Louis and as Executive Director of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod Foundation. For the following four years, until 1971, he served as Executive Director of the Lutheran Laymen's League, also in St. Louis. For eighteen years, from 1957 to 1975, he provided leadership to National Religious Broadcasters (NRB) in the capacity of its President and he continued to serve on the NRB Executive Committee and as Secretary of the organization.
Bertermann's interests and involvements were many and varied. He served on the American Bible Society Advisory Council, the Advisory Board of Editors of the International Broadcasters Society, and the Advisory Committee of Missions Advanced Research and Communication Center. In 1959, he addressed the Latin American Congress on Mass Communications in Cali, Colombia. He participated in the World Congress on Evangelism in Berlin in 1966 and the International Congress on World Evangelization at Lausanne, Switzerland, in July of 1974. He also served on the Board of Directors and was actively involved in the work of the Lutheran Braille Workers and Lutheran Bible Translators. He was a member of the Board of Directors of Pacific States University at Los Angeles, California.
Upon the death of Dr. Walter A. Maier in 1950, Bertermann succeeded him in 1952 as author of the annually published "Day by Day with Jesus" devotional calendar, printed and distributed by Concordia Publishing House in St. Louis.
In May of 1971, Bertermann became Executive Director of the Far East Broadcasting Company with headquarters then in Whittier, California. He had been on the Board of Directors of FEBC for seven years prior to being named as Executive Director. At the time of his appointment, FEBC was engaged in the "Open Door" project, which involved the construction of two two-hundred-fifty-thousand-watt medium wave facilities. This project has been completed and the two stations, HLDA in Korea and DWRF in the Philippines, are both on the air, beaming the Gospel to China, Russia, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, and other countries of the Far East.
During Bertermann's association with the FEBC as Executive Director, he was heavily involved in the plans and construction process of a new headquarters office and central recording studio building located in La Mirada, California. He continued as Executive Director until 1978. In January 1979, while continuing on the Board of Directors of the Far East Broadcasting Company, he became Associate Director of the Lutheran Bible Translators (LBT) in Orange, California, an organization he was involved in founding in 1964. LBT had approximately 250 missionaries, half of whom were in fields of the Wycliffe Bible Translators and half of whom were in Liberia and Sierra Leone, involved in the translation of the Scriptures into languages that had not previously been reduced to writing.
In 1937, Bertermann married Ruth Martha Hoffman. They made their home in Orange, California. They had three children: Delvin, a Lutheran pastor in Akron, Ohio; David, with Safeco Insurance Company in Chicago, Illinois; and Deborah, an attorney with the City of Orange, California. Dr. Bertermann died in 1983.
0.00 Linear Feet
19 Boxes (2 DC, 17 RC), Audio Tape, Oversize Materials, Phonograph Records, Photographs other_unmapped
Language of Materials
Accruals and Additions
Accession 82-51, 83-56
November 23, 1983
Retyped, March 11, 1989
- African Americans.
- Anderson, John Bayard,
- Armstrong, Ben.
- Assemblies of God.
- Back to God Hour (Radio program)
- Back to the Bible Broadcast (Radio program)
- Bertermann, Eugene R.
- Bible -- Publication and distribution.
- Bright, Bill.
- Carter, Jimmy, 1924-
- Catholic Church.
- Catholic Church. -- United States.
- Christian leadership.
- Christian literature
- Christian literature -- Publication and distribution.
- Christianity today.
- Church and state
- Church and state -- Korea.
- Church and state -- United States.
- Communism -- China.
- Communism -- Soviet Union.
- ELWA (Radio station : Monrovia, Liberia)
- Eisenhower, Dwight D.
- Epp, Theodore H.
- Evangelical Alliance Mission.
- Evangelicalism -- United States.
- Evangelistic work
- Evangelistic work -- Brazil.
- Evangelistic work -- Great Britain.
- Evangelistic work -- Guatemala.
- Evangelistic work -- Japan.
- Evangelistic work -- Mexico.
- Evangelistic work -- Soviet Union.
- Evangelistic work -- United States.
- Far East Broadcasting Company.
- Ford, Gerald R.,
- Freed, Paul E.
- Fund raising
- Fund raising -- United States.
- Fundamentalism -- United States.
- Graham, Billy,
- HCJB (Radio station : Quito, Ecuador)
- Hatfield, Mark O.
- Heaven and Home Hour (Radio program)
- Henry, Carl F. H.
- Hoffman, Oswald C. J.
- Hour of Decision (Radio program)
- International Christian Broadcasters.
- Jesus to the Communist World.
- Jones, Bob,
- Jones, Clarence W.
- Key 73
- Kim, Chang-hwan,
- Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod.
- Mass media in religion
- Mass media in religion -- United States.
- Mass media in religion.
- Missions -- Interdenominational cooperation.
- Missions Advanced Research and Communications Center.
- Motion pictures in church work
- Motion pictures in church work -- United States.
- Murch, James DeForest,
- National Association of Evangelicals.
- National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America.
- National Religious Broadcasters (U.S.)
- Nixon, Richard M.
- Old Fashioned Revival Hour (Radio program)
- Olford, Stephen F.
- PTL Club (Television program)
- Pornography -- Religious aspects.
- Presbyterians -- United States.
- Presidents -- United States
- Presidents -- United States -- Religion.
- Radio audiences.
- Radio in religion.
- Reagan, Ronald.
- Religious institutions.
- Southern Baptist Convention.
- Sweeting, George,
- Talmage, T. De Witt
- Television in religion.
- Trans World Radio.
- Van Der Puy, Abe C.
- Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975.
- Voice of Prophecy (Radio program)
- Walker, Robert,
- Wilson, George.
- World Evangelical Fellowship.
- World Vision International.
- Wurmbrand, Richard.
- Wyrtzen, Jack,
- Zimmerman, Thomas F.
- Collection 209 Papers of Eugene R. Bertermann
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Code for undetermined script
- Language of description note